Till 1804 A.D. no Newar was admitted in civil service. [1]The Newar system varies from the ideal typical South Asian religious model in various aspects. In the past, the upper caste people used to look down upon the lower caste. Unlike the traditional Hindu caste systems prevalent in Khas and Madhesi societies, the existence of Buddhist "ex-monks" from ancient times in the Kathmandu Valley added a "double-headed" element to the Newar caste system. The Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. You forgot Rajkarnikar. The Chatharīya and strict Pañcthariya accepted water (but not boiled and salted foods) from them. Rajopadhyaya, Sharma, Acharya, Subedi, Shukla. Despite the Brahminical basis of the Newar caste structure, it is difficult to apply the four hierarchical orders of Brahman, Kṣetri, Vaiśya and Śudra to the Newars. Caste, State, and Ethnic Boundaries in Nepal. The caste system conjoints a structural class divide which persists, in which lower castes/ethnicities are generally socio-economically are not equal like those of higher castes/ethnicities. DHULIKHEL: People of a lower caste and the so-called upper caste of the Newar community had a minor scuffle over the issue of providing Feast House to the lower caste in Panauti Friday. Therefore, the Hindu Brahmins and Buddhist Vajracharyas occupy the highest position in Newar society. Madhikarmi (Halwai), Māka, Mulmi, Bhadra, Kachhapati, Banepali, Deoju, Nyachhyon, Bijukchhe, Sivacharya, etc. For Buddhist Newars, Vajracharyas, and the Shakyas (collectively called “Bare”) was followed by the Uray, the Buddhist lay patrons or Upasakas, who were most typically involved in trade. 3 thoughts on “ नेवारका थरहरू(Newar cast system) ” purna achaju shrestha says: February 6, 2019 at 12:23 pm. Referred to as ‘Dhyo Brahman'(God Brahmin) or colloquially as ‘Dhyo Baje'(God Grandfather), these Brahmins with surnames Rajopadhyaya, Sharma, Acharya, Subedi, among others, serve as family priest (purohit) primarily to the Hindu Srēṣṭha clans. Jyapus are among the most progressive farmers in Nepal. First introduced in the time of the Licchavis, the Newar caste system assumed its present shape during the medieval Malla period. [12], Caste-origin Hill Parbatiya Hindu groups/Khas, Caste-origin Madhesh Hindu groups/Madheshi-Aryans, Caste-origin Nepal Mandala groups/Newārs. Of these four groups the first two—the Gubhaju-Bare group and the Uray group—form the core of the Buddhamargi Newars. (1) Gubhāju-Bare, consists of two sub-groups, viz. They have become major decision makers in the bureaucracy of Nepal has become crystal clear. First introduced at the time of the Licchavis, the Newar caste system assumed its present shape during the medieval Malla period. However given the global nature of the “caste system” it has in part become fragmented into slightly different meanings depending on the culture it’s embedded into. Most notable contradiction is the inclusion of previously non-Hindu tribes "Adivasi Janajati" groups, as well as non-Nepalis including Muslims and Europeans into the hierarchical fold. Most Newars, as well as they themselves, consider them as being only partial Newars. fully On the other hand, people of lower sections have slowly risen to the higher position with possibility for their advancement or economic independence, with dignity of their own. [citation needed] Education is free and open to all castes. Certain outside analysts have suggested that "seeking a balance in approach requires addressing both specific indigenous historical injustices while creating a common citizenship for all marginalised citizens regardless of identity, which remains a particularly challenging issue for Nepal". Copyright ©, 2019. In Nepal, high castes dominate 91.2% among the prominent position in politics and bureaucracy. The Gubhaju (Vajracharya) and the Bare (Shakya) form the priestly functionaries. Their dominance is reflected in education, administration and economical activities of the nation. The biggest laundry and meat shops in the cities belong to them. The Rajopadhyayas speak Newari language and have been the purohitas and gurus of the Malla kings. Chārtharīya Shrestha are even lowered in the social status and consists of those from non-Srestha background who try to emulate or establish the Srestha (Chatharīya and Pañchthariya) status by pretending their norms or simply, in many cases, adopting the general caste-denoting surname like ‘Shrestha’ or in other instances ‘Joshi’, ‘Singh’, ‘Achaju’, or ‘Pradhan’. Such a division of people created a rift in the society which has rendered the mention of caste as a taboo. He succeeded in introducing the caste system to a much greater degree and rigidity than Jayasthitimalla, the Malla king had done just over five hundred years before him. Required fields are marked *. How can you ask this question? Similarly, the Buddhamargi castes can be broadly divided into four major groups. Social exclusion and Maoist insurgency. A special sub-group of the Gubhaju is called Buddhacharya who are traditional priests of Swayambhunath temple, the most sacred temple for Buddhamargis. Nepal Population Report, 2002. They are a prominent community in the business and cultural life of Kathmandu and have played key roles in the development of trade, industry, art, architecture, literature and Buddhism in Nepal and the Himalayan region. 12,114 and Muslim ranks the lowest, Rs.11,014'[10] The democratic transitions also failed to be inclusive management and functioning governance mainly because government was unable to understand and articulate the spirit of all Nepalese people irrespective of their caste, gender, ethnicity, and religion. The Tirhute Brahmins came to the Valley in the late Malla period and also during the early Shah period. [12] Many scholars argue that the local term “Chatharīya” is a corruption of the word “Kshatriya”, the traditionally warrior and ruling class of traditional Hindu soceities. The old Newar upper caste, the Shrestha, were also reduced to Matawali status. The legal recognition to caste and all the discriminatory laws made on the grounds of caste were ceased. LANGUAGE, CASTE, RELIGIO AN TERRITORD N Y Newar identity ancient and modern Between the Newars, however an, d the other Hindoo inhabitant osf Nepal, there subsist a,s wel al s in character, customs, manner and featuress a,s in religious rite ans d language , very essential al differencesl o … Paper presented at National Dialogue Conference on ILO Convention 169 on Indigenous and Tribal Peoples, Kathmandu, 19–20 January 2005. http://southasiacheck.org/fact-check/how-discriminatory-was-the-first-muluki-ain-against-dalits/. This is followed by the Hindu Kshatriya nobility (Chatharīya) and the Vaishya merchant and traders castes. The Newars, as a block, were reduced to the status of an occupied subject race, and except for a loyal family or two they were stripped of their social status and economic foothold. – métiers needed in the daily lives of the Newars or for their cultural or ritual needs. [18] The name ‘Uray’ is said to have been derived from the Sanskrit term “upāsaka” meaning “devout layman”. The social values preached by the Muluki Ain, however, were providing restrictive, anachronic and out of step with the spirit of times. The Nepalese caste system was the traditional system of social stratification of Nepal. As a consequence, among the Newars, caste has become more complex and stratified than among the non-Newar group. The Newar are divided into hierarchical clan groups by occupational caste, readily identified by surnames. [3] The law also comprised Prāyaścitta (avoidance and removal of sin) and Ācāra (the customary law of different castes and communities). of Sankhu. Such a division of people created a rift in the society which has rendered the mention of caste as a taboo. First introduced at the time of the Licchavis (A.D. 300 – c. 879), the Newar caste system assumed its present shape during the medieval Malla period (A.D. 1201–1769). 1 (Feb., 1987), pp. [8], Participation of Khas-Brahmins in Civil Service is 41.3% in spite of its population size of less than 29.98%. Its attempts to integrate the entire Newar status system into a national system was very awkward for all parties, and “often deficient or ambiguous and at variance with the self-assessment of the Newar castes.”. Ritual funeral specialists for Hindu Newars, Farmers from valley outskirts; not accepted as, Fishermen, sweepers, traditional executioners. In 2001 the CBS recorded only nine groups in the caste-origin Hill Hindu groups. Half a century ago, prominent scholar of caste, Beteille (1969: 45) warned that ‘it has been used to mean different things by different people in a variety of situations’.For low castes, or Dalits, it is a very unjust and oppressive system. The remaining castes all fall under the rubric of matwali or “liquor-drinking.” From the Khas Brahman-Chhetri point of view this large middle-ranking group includes most Newar and other Tibeto-Burman speaking peoples. MOPE (2002). We all live here with a great love, with equal rights. Newar lowest occupational castes – Kulu/Dom, Podhya, Chyamaha/Chandala, etc. Within the Sresthas there are three hierarchically ranked, traditionally endogamous groups which describe themselves as i. Kshatriya or colloquially Chatharīya, ii. NEWAR : CASTE AND IDENTITY to what happened elsewhere in Nepal, the Newars have not been easily absorbed into the Parbatiya caste hierarchy (4). The most drastic change came only as late as 1935 A.D. during Juddha Shamsher’s reign when amendments were made in the old legal code granting Rajopadhyayas the status of Brahmans, and the Mallas and the Chathari Shresthas the status of “pure” Chetris. To these historically established and upper Srestha ranks, Chārtharīya’s efforts remain unacknowledged and hence are not counted among the Srestha fold. Majority population in Lalitpur, Bungamati, Kirtipur. They serve as traditional non-Brahmin Tantric priests of Taleju, the guardian deity of the Malla kings, as well as various other Tantric temples of Kathmandu valley. The most common Newari surnames could be Shrestha, Manandhar, Shakya etc but you might be surprised to know there are more than 115 surnames in this caste. Such a division of people created a rift in the society which has rendered the mention of caste as a taboo. Firstly, the buddhist priestly class has also been 'castified'. In 1863 A.D. a majority of the Newars were upgraded to “non-enslaveable” community, after Jung Bahadur’s content at Newars’ administration of public offices during the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Another thing is that when Nepal was unified, majority of the people who went out of the valley and thus establishing new Newar trade towns were the rich, affluent Newar castes like Shresthas. 24,399, Adivasi Janajatis ranks third with an average income of Rs. ... pass it by at a much lower level. Today, they picture themselves as the most genuine Newars, the epitome of their society and culture. Some Udasas, like the Tuladhars, are among the most prosperous and wealthy people in Nepal, and used to have property interests in places like Lhasa, Darjeeling, Kalimpong and various other trade centres outside Nepal. One of the main ways in which Newar culture relates to Hinduism is through its treatment of death. Buddhist Newars living in a baha – a residential quadrangle around a central court with Buddhist shrines and temples – consider themselves to be of common descent, making intermarriage a taboo. Newar caste logic stratifies the Uray and the Pāncthariya Srēṣṭha as the core Vaishya (alternatively Baisya) of Newars who are highly specialized in trade and commerce. 71–88, This page was last edited on 7 December 2020, at 05:06. The Shakyas, who are next to the Bajracharyas in the caste hierarchy, can also be called vihar priests. Yes they have a social structure based on varnashram (Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya, Shudra). Marriage is, as a rule, patrilocal and monogamous. This latter group may consider all Newar people to be equally Matawali and other inhabitant Janajati of Nepal, all essentially of the Vaishya varna, but this is not the perception of the Newars themselves. They are the indigenous people of the Kathmandu valley the and its surrounding areas in Nepal and the creators of its historic civilization. The interesting thing among Newars is that similar to much of India, the population of upper-caste Brahmins, Kshatriyas and Vaishyas is minuscule compared to the lower castes. We all respect each other. The Urāy/Udas group is composed of the castes of hereditary merchants and artisans. The Brahmins were like all other specialized service providers, except that they were considered higher to others in ritual purity. This group not only presents the complicated social structure among all groups in Nepal, truly reflecting the model of four Hindu varna categories but is also clearly divided into two distinct religious groups: the Hindu and the Buddhist. Malla Khacarā, Thaku, Lawatt, etc. In the past, the upper caste people used to look down upon the lower caste. Your email address will not be published. Terai and Newar Brahmins and Kshatriyas were officially placed below their Khas equivalents. Chārtharīya. Similarly, serious limitations and oversights of this code include the complete exclusion of the large middle-ranking Terai groups. [11] In terms of education, 88.0% of Khas Brahmins & Chhetris, and Newars have access to school, 12.0% have never been to school. Recent research has also shown that when it comes to Nepali people's impressions of social change, "Poverty, Human Resources and Region" explain more of the variation than "Ethnicity, Caste or Religious belonging" – i.e. He ihtroduced those Newar castes from which most of the Theraväda followers come and gave some figures for the clerics, but none for the Tay people. Newar can never be considered as a single homogeneous caste. But the Jyapus remained united and never allowed themselves to pushed into the position of serfdom of slavery as many non-Hindu tribes in the plains were forced to do. For the non-Mongoloid hill ‘Khas’ tribe of the west who are of North-Indian Indo-Aryan heritage, and are in large part associated with the Gorkhali invaders, the term Partya or hill-dweller is used in polite reference. Like Liked by 1 person. The Nepalese caste system was the traditional system of social stratification of Nepal.The Nepalese caste system broadly borrows the classical Hindu Chaturvarnashram model consisting of four broad social classes or varna: Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya, Sudra.. 46, No. Therefore, while Rājopādhyāya Brahmins occupy the highest social position in the Hindu side, the Vajracharya (or Guru/Gu-Bhajus) form the head among the Buddhists. Despite the forceful integration by the state into the pan-Hindu social structure, the traditionally non-Hindu groups and tribes do not necessarily adhere to the customs and practices of the caste system. These values were seen as a potent instrument of Rana political repression. Kathmandu: Ministry of Population and Environment, HMG, Nepal. The distinction between Hindu and Buddhist is largely irrelevant from here onward as the castes occupying the Shudra grouping do not differentiate between the either and profess both the religions equally and with great fervor. The caste system appears to have been first conceived in Nepal towards the beginning of Lichhivi period. The caste system defines social classes by a number of hierarchical endogamous groups often termed jaat. It was only those clientele Newar families patronized by the Ranas who succeeded in upgrading their social and economic status by imitating new norms of the Rana durbar. Similarly, the Janajati has 36.0% of the total population of the country, has representation of 7.1%. Economically, the position of the Newars was weakened by the diversion of Tibet trade from the Chumbi Valley route since 1850s A.D. and the competition with the Marwaris became all the more stiff since the end of the World War I. Menstruating Newar women can comb their own hair, and may continue to sleep in their usual place, although they sometimes … It was rooted in traditional Hindu Law and codified social practices for several centuries in Nepal. If these major three castes (Khas Brahmin & Chhetris, and Newars) combine together their shares in the Government of Nepal, civil service employment is 89.2% in 1991. Thus making is a complex system that can combine many elements from birth right, ethnicity, occupation, power and financial acumen. When an individual dies they become a preta and resides in relatives’ households before going to the kingdom of Yama. The Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. This custom was traditionally only prevalent in the Hindu-Arya (Indo Aryan) societies of the Khas, Madhesi, and Newars. Among those 73.8% in higher education belong to higher castes, 22.0% Janajatis and 2.9% Dalit.[9]. The caste system defines social classes by a number of hierarchical endogamous groups often termed jaat. Caste (jāt) Traditional occupation Personal Surnames (thars) Notes Brāhman, Shivamargi (1.1%) Hindu family purohit Rajopādhyāya, Sharmā, … The Rajopadhyayas still keep a strong tradition of Vedic and Tantric rituals alive, a fact exemplified for instance at the recent Lakhhōma, performed with contributions of the whole town of Bhaktapur. Along with the Shakyas they have the right of hereditary membership of the bahas or viharas. Living in rural areas, Brahmans and Chhetri usually support Newar shopkeepers in their commercial activities. For security, use of Google's reCAPTCHA service is required which is subject to the Google Privacy Policy and Terms of Use. Newar caste system; Further reading. Caste is inherently subjective; information for this site was gathered from an interview with a high-caste, ethnically Newar Nepali immigrant to the United States, Shreya Shrestha, who was present during the May earthquake, as well as outside sources like NGOs, opinion editorials, news resources, and needs assessments by organizations like the World Bank. bahun( Mishra), Singh( rajput),baniya (sah/shah), yadav and koeri are most dominating caste among madhesi-aryan community.These various cultural groups belong to five distinct language groups: Maithili, Bajika, Bhojpuri, and Awadhi. This group include among them highly differentiated and specialized castes – agriculturalists, farmers, potters, painters, dyers, florists, butchers, tailors, cleaners, etc. The Acharya or Achaju (alternatively Karmacharya, Guruwacharya) hold prominent and respected position within the Newar society. 1 (Feb., 1987), pp. The Nepali civil code Muluki Ain was commissioned by Jung Bahadur Rana after his European tour and enacted in 1854. Other rules further restrict social inter-mingling between the castes, but they tend to be treated more casually. Traditional families also get advice from family Jyotishi/Joshi for horoscope match-making. In this process the left outs were oppressed class (Dalits), women, the poorest of the poor, powerless and the second class citizen and indigenous nationalities (Adivasi Janajatis). The Chatharīya do follow many traditions very similar to those of the Khas-Chhetris. They are the purohits or family priests. According to him, at the time of his study in 1982 there were about 60 bhikkhus, i.e. The most successful attempt at imposing the caste system was made in the 19th century by Jung Bahadur Kunwar who was very keen to have his own status raised. Some of the prominent sub-castes within this group are Maharjan, Dangol, Suwal, Duwal, Singh, Prajapati, etc. The Newar caste system is the system of subdivision of Newars on the basis of designated occupation. Astrologers; also offsprings of Brahman-Srēṣṭha marriages; Nobles and royal descendants, military advisors and ministers. While the Chatharīya are the Newari aristocrats treated ritually as nobles, Pañchthariya are those who have been drawn from multiple economic and social backgrounds, especially from successful mercantile and commercial families and hence ritually seen as Vaishyas. Newar caste system is the system by which Newārs, the historical inhabitants of Kathmandu Valley, are divided into groups on the basis of Vedic varna model and divided according to their hereditary occupations. The Valley is surrounded by a rampart of hills rising to 7 or 8,000 feet; according to local belief and myth, and according to … With the advent of Khas domination since Nepal’s unification by Prithvi Narayan Shah in 1769 A.D. the center of power shifted from the Newar noble families to these power -and land- hungry rural nobility whose core values were concentration of power at home and conquest abroad. Caste endogamy, however, which has been one of the main methods of maintaining status in India, is not strictly observed in Nepal by either the Newars or the Khasas. The Newar are divided into hierarchical clan groups by occupational caste, readily identified by surnames. people's perception of their own social situation has more to do with geography and objective social class, than with their association with the groups that the state has based its internal social policy on. These minor shortcomings do not, however, lower the standard of the book. Much of the previously animist/tribal Khas population of the western Nepal region acquired the 'Chhetri' status in the 1850s with the proclamation by the Rana Prime Minister Jung Bahadur Rana, making Chhetris the most populous caste/tribe of Nepal. The global definition of the caste system surrounds a classification of several hereditary groups of hierarchical social class. The Newar castes, Buddhist as well as Hindu, are no less pollution-conscious than the Khas and the Madhesis. It was an attempt to include the entire Hindu as well as non-Hindu population of Nepal of that time into a single hierarchic civic code from the perspective of the Khas rulers. However, while the Bajracharyas’ exclusive occupation is priesthood, the Shakyas follow the hereditary occupation of goldsmiths. Khas upper castes come next with an average income of Rs. Caste system in Nepal Caste discrimination Nancy E. Levine. Nay referring Newar butcher caste, Khi means drums and Baja as any kind of instrument or ensemble), the instrument which lends its name to the musician caste … caste background of Theraväda Buddhists in Nepal10. The Newar caste structure resembles more closely that of North India and Madheshis than that of Khas ‘Parbatiya’ in that all four varna (Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra) and untouchables are represented. list of newar caste in nepal November 6, 2020 0 Comments But despite of having small population, Newar people have great impact in Nepali society. Conversely, those Khas (North Indian Indo-Aryan) groups untouchable to the Partya Brahmans and Chetri themselves are also untouchable for the Newars. Although Jung Bahadur and his descendants were well disposed to a few clientele Newar families, the 104 years of their family rule was not a golden age of Newar social history. Reply. Unlike the traditional Hindu caste systems prevalent in Khas and Madhesi societies, the existence of Buddhist “ex-monks” from ancient times in the Kathmandu Valley added a “double-headed” element to the Newar caste system. So there was an inclination for many lower caste people to change their name for better opportunities. If you agree to these terms, please click here. are other myriads of non-Jyapu occupational castes who perform highly specialized hereditary occupations.