Three-quarters of the country's human and animal populations depend on groundwater due to drought. Waterborne diseases - those in which bacteria survive in, and are transmitted through, water; always a serious threat in areas with an untreated water supply. Careless dumping of the waste and widespread littering has become a serious problem in Botswana (Gould, 1995). Buy Environmental Issues in Botswana by Julius Atlhopheng at Mighty Ape NZ. Switch Boards. The Strategy identified major environmental problems in Botswana as follows: • Pressure on water resources This paper highlights the environmental problems confronting Botswana, which include growing pressure on water resources resulting from increases in population, urbanization and development, deforestation, overgrazing and rangeland degradation in the face of unfavourable environmental and climatic conditions. Potable water - water that is drinkable, safe to be consumed. %���� In addition, environmental education is being incorporated into the education system in Botswana. Biodiversity - also biological diversity; the relative number of species, diverse in form and function, at the genetic, organism, community, and ecosystem level; loss of biodiversity reduces an ecosystem's ability to recover from natural or man-induced disruption. Through the technical and … In addition, enviromental education is being incorporated into the education system in Botswana. USAID helps conserve, maintain, and restore the forests of Botswana by supporting Forest Conservation Botswana (FCB) through the Transfrontier Conservation Area (TFCA). Result of survey about air pollution, water pollution, greens and parks satisfaction, light and noise pollution, etc. Environmental Issues in Botswana. In addition, environmental education is being incorporated into the education system in Botswana. Summary. %PDF-1.5 Major Environmental Issues. Pollution - the contamination of a healthy environment by man-made waste. These are: 1. Botswana Daily News (Gaborone) By Aubrey Maswabi. <> Six environmental issues of major concern to the country were identified in Botswana's National Conservation Strategy: industrial and urban pollution ; pressure on water resources Deforestation has become one of the major factors, which is affecting the ecological balance of not only Africa, but of the entire world. While many of these environmental problems are addressed by Botswana's environmental legislation, the quality of those laws, as well as their enforcement, has generally been poor. Deforestation - the destruction of vast areas of forest (e.g., unsustainable forestry practices, agricultural and range land clearing, and the over exploitation of wood products for use as fuel) without planting new growth. AbeBooks.com: Environmental Issues in Botswana. Afforestation - converting a bare or agricultural space by planting trees and plants; reforestation involves replanting trees on areas that have been cut or destroyed by fire. There is a lack of materials on the environment in Botswana, and this handbook addresses that gap. in environmental problems such as global warming, depletion of the ozone layer, continued population growth, massive loss of species and biodiversity, land degradation and accelerated rates of … List of best Environmental Consultants in Botswana of 2020. The Republic of Botswana or \"Botswana\" for short, is a small landlocked country located at the southern part of Africa bordering the Republic of South Africa to the south and southeast, the Republic of Zimbabwe to the northeast and the Republic of Namibia to the north and west. ~�I$gYRD�`����.�=�U�^7���ϠPer)�Te2�㲈x Botswana is a lightly industrialized country with a relatively sparse population. Overgrazing - the grazing of animals on plant material faster than it can naturally regrow leading to the permanent loss of plant cover, a common effect of too many animals grazing limited range land. <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/Annots[ 20 0 R 21 0 R 22 0 R 23 0 R 24 0 R 25 0 R 26 0 R 27 0 R 28 0 R 29 0 R 30 0 R 36 0 R 37 0 R 38 0 R 39 0 R 40 0 R 41 0 R 42 0 R 43 0 R 44 0 R 45 0 R 46 0 R 47 0 R] /MediaBox[ 0 0 595.32 841.92] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> Botswana: 'Environmental Issues Affect All' 20 May 2019. Literatura obcojęzyczna Environmental Issues in Botswana. Freshwater - water with very low soluble mineral content; sources include lakes, streams, rivers, glaciers, and underground aquifers. 2 0 obj Catchments - assemblages used to capture and retain rainwater and runoff; an important water management technique in areas with limited freshwater resources, such as Gibraltar. Zobacz inne Literatura obcojęzyczna, najtańsze i najlepsze oferty. Metallurgical plants - industries which specialize in the science, technology, and processing of metals; these plants produce highly concentrated and toxic wastes which can contribute to pollution of ground water and air when not properly disposed. Salination - the process through which fresh (drinkable) water becomes salt (undrinkable) water; hence, desalination is the reverse process; also involves the accumulation of salts in topsoil caused by evaporation of excessive irrigation water, a process that can eventually render soil incapable of supporting crops. Environmental issues in Botswana by Julius Atlhopheng, Chadzimula Molebatsi, Elisha Toteng, unknown edition, Soil erosion - the removal of soil by the action of water or wind, compounded by poor agricultural practices, deforestation, overgrazing, and desertification. Growing pressure on water resources, resulting from increases in population, urbanization and development; 2. Botswana faces two major environmental problems, drought and desertification, which are heavily linked. There is a lack of materials on the environment in Botswana, and this handbook addresses that gap. <> The threats of uncontrolled landfilling are not realized by the people of Botswana. Influences on Environmental Law in Botswana Like most countries, Botswana's environmental laws reflect various influences - both positive and negative. economic planning. Defoliants - chemicals which cause plants to lose their leaves artificially; often used in agricultural practices for weed control, and may have detrimental impacts on human and ecosystem health. Environmental Issues in Botswana A Handbook. [Julius Atlhopheng;] Home. Environmental Issues in Botswana: A Handbook: Atlhopheng, Julius, Molebatsi, Chadzimula, Toteng, Elisha: Amazon.sg: Books Find Environmental Consultants in Botswana and get directions and maps for local businesses in Africa. Aug 18, 2020 environmental issues in botswana a handbook Posted By Mary Higgins Clark Media Publishing TEXT ID 7437977d Online PDF Ebook Epub Library Environmental Issues And Management In Botswana al issues and management in botswana have the national conservation plants worked 1 introduction 11 the natural Botswana guide Birds of Botswana; Environmental issues in Botswana; Giraffes in Botswana; Honey badgers in Botswana; Leopards in Botswana; Mammals of Botswana; Mopane worms in Botswana; Reptiles of Botswana; Snakes of Botswana; Nature articles about Botswana. stream Source: CIA World Factbook - This page was last updated on Friday, November 27, 2020, overgrazing; desertification; limited freshwater resources; air pollution. Factbook > Countries > Botswana > Geography. Environmental Problems The govemment of Botswana has identified five major environmental problems. Quantification is difficult. by Julius Atlhopheng, Chadzimula Molebatsi. 4 0 obj There is a lack of materials on the enviroment in Botswana, and this handbook addresses that gap. 5R��Q>JlR@9e!x� t6��d���ئz���/� |�I~�� JS�QND����&��"��TwJF Bio-indicators - a plant or animal species whose presence, abundance, and health reveal the general condition of its habitat. Although the government has taken initiative for growing more plants, the imbalance in nature cannot be covered by just a little effort. There is a lack of materials on the enviroment in Botswana, and this handbook addresses that gap. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry:Acidification - the lowering of soil and water pH due to acid precipitation and deposition usually through precipitation; this process disrupts ecosystem nutrient flows and may kill freshwater fish and plants dependent on more neutral or alkaline conditions (see acid rain).Acid rain - characterized as containing harmful levels of sulfur dioxide or nitrogen oxide; acid rain is damaging and potentially deadly to the earth's fragile ecosystems; acidity is measured using the pH scale where 7 is neutral, values greater than 7 are considered alkaline, and values below 5.6 are considered acid precipitation; note - a pH of 2.4 (the acidity of vinegar) has been measured in rainfall in New England. Inuit Circumpolar Conference (ICC) - represents the roughly 150,000 Inuits of Alaska, Canada, Greenland, and Russia in international environmental issues; a General Assembly convenes every three years to determine the focus of the ICC; the most current concerns are long-range transport of pollutants, sustainable development, and climate change. DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane) - a colorless, odorless insecticide that has toxic effects on most animals; the use of DDT was banned in the US in 1972. ��Hu�_��L�R���θ`�?�T�3�Q!�2����?�>�i���d����ۏ�t_�Q��E\Bv�� ��H�i���'����i� Dredging - the practice of deepening an existing waterway; also, a technique used for collecting bottom-dwelling marine organisms (e.g., shellfish) or harvesting coral, often causing significant destruction of reef and ocean-floor ecosystems. Ecosystems - ecological units comprised of complex communities of organisms and their specific environments. endobj Botswana like the rest of the world takes into high esteem matters of environmental sustainability. environmental problems due to its enormous development. Mpotokwane, M (1990) 'Tourism and Environmental Issues in Botswana' in L. Pfotenhauer, Tourism in Botswana, Botswana Society pp 1 46-157. CDC Main: 4630411 Palapye: 4921092 Mahalapye: 4713323 Boteti: 2978278 Tutume: 2987232 Bobirwa: 2619274 Serowe: 4631138 Tonota: 2484248 Degradation of range pasture resources, due to a variety of management and other factors. endobj Acting deputy permanent secretary in the Ministry of Environment Wildlife and Tourism, Mr Jimmy Opelo said when officially opening the Africa Environment Day in Gaborone on March 3. Surface water is scarce in Botswana and less than 5% of the agriculture in the country is sustainable by rainfall. Poaching - the illegal killing of animals or fish, a great concern with respect to endangered or threatened species. Soil degradation - damage to the land's productive capacity because of poor agricultural practices such as the excessive use of pesticides or fertilizers, soil compaction from heavy equipment, or erosion of topsoil, eventually resulting in reduced ability to produce agricultural products. Botswana also meets the Republic of Zambia at a single point. Estimation of pollution in Botswana, using perception. Pollution and toxicity. A handbook was compiled as a step towards augmenting teaching materials on Botswana's environment. Endangered species - a species that is threatened with extinction either by direct hunting or habitat destruction. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation - a portion of the electromagnetic energy emitted by the sun and naturally filtered in the upper atmosphere by the ozone layer; UV radiation can be harmful to living organisms and has been linked to increasing rates of skin cancer in humans. Ozone shield - a layer of the atmosphere composed of ozone gas (O3) that resides approximately 25 miles above the Earth's surface and absorbs solar ultraviolet radiation that can be harmful to living organisms. Desertification - the spread of desert-like conditions in arid or semi-arid areas, due to overgrazing, loss of agriculturally productive soils, or climate change. x��\ms�8�����|��b�x��T�w��dr{����n>d�#�6+����d�G��lw� ����f*�L6@���F���զ���E�^��|ն�ⱺc�. Slash-and-burn agriculture - a rotating cultivation technique in which trees are cut down and burned in order to clear land for temporary agriculture; the land is used until its productivity declines at which point a new plot is selected and the process repeats; this practice is sustainable while population levels are low and time is permitted for regrowth of natural vegetation; conversely, where these conditions do not exist, the practice can have disastrous consequences for the environment. Background. a Handbook – sprawdź opinie i opis produktu. Environmental issues in Botswana : a handbook. Factbook > Countries > Botswana > Geography Environment - current issues: overgrazing; desertification; limited freshwater resources; air pollution Noxious substances - injurious, very harmful to living beings. The clearing of forest cover for wood and agricultural land has resulted in soil erosion, climate change, less rainfall, and many other adverse conditions. c�H����H�6_�c|�ȣd�/��l�r����S�|�j����k_�w�z`�ju��znA���k��LeQ���F&�I0�D�c������5�\ζ����\�/�ds�n�����4��9�j���v~���%�����eMD%�CJv��?�_�b�jU.�����R!OcU�a+����^���!ˣ�`i�*� �I��m����zMM!h���A/�x垒R%Q��k1��l�X��r|�9�`� Ǐ���ݮ4�U[BoP�w��lv�`Y֨ҧ����G�H�z@. As such, air pollution is not perceived to be a major problem at present. Carbon cycle - the term used to describe the exchange of carbon (in various forms, e.g., as carbon dioxide) between the atmosphere, ocean, terrestrial biosphere, and geological deposits. In a bid to consider environmental issues in planning, the Government of Botswana formulated the National Conservation Strategy as a vehicle through which sustainable economic development can be achieved. The key environmental problems in Botswana are presented below (not in order of priority): Water scarcity and pollution: Water resources in Botswana is characterised by the fact that it is a shared and scare resource, unevenly distributed in time and space. Create lists, bibliographies and reviews: or Search WorldCat. Search for Library Items Search for Lists Search for Contacts Search for a Library. Siltation - occurs when water channels and reservoirs become clotted with silt and mud, a side effect of deforestation and soil erosion. endobj <>>> ?6�^~���.ߗ��l�fuuŮ_߰?�?Kd�'���DE Southern Africa consists of countries such as: Angola, Botswana, Eswatini, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.Lesotho is surrounded by South Africa (it is in the middle of South Africa). In Botswana right now, there are two environmental issues in the country of Botswana which it has currently facing, such as drought and desertification, are the bigger problems in the country due to too much human activities, overgrazing, deforestation and bio-industrial activities practices. Forest Conservation Botswana is an $8 million joint program with the Government of Botswana that provides grants to local NGOs to work on environment conservation and policy issues that support forest conservation. Stanford Libraries' official online search tool for books, media, journals, databases, government documents and more. placed to tackle global environmental problems and come up with innovative and sustainable solutions. 3. Search. 3 0 obj Asbestos - a naturally occurring soft fibrous mineral commonly used in fireproofing materials and considered to be highly carcinogenic in particulate form. Greenhouse gas - a gas that "traps" infrared radiation in the lower atmosphere causing surface warming; water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons, and ozone are the primary greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere. Biomass - the total weight or volume of living matter in a given area or volume. Drift-net fishing - done with a net, miles in extent, that is generally anchored to a boat and left to float with the tide; often results in an over harvesting and waste of large populations of non-commercial marine species (by-catch) by its effect of "sweeping the ocean clean." Groundwater use through deep borehole drilling has somewhat eased the effects of drought. WorldCat Home About WorldCat Help. A Handbook Paperback – January 1, 1998 by Julius Atlhopheng (Author), Chadzimula Molebatsi (Author), Elisha Toteng (Author) & See all formats and editions Hide other formats and editions. Since its establishment in 1992, the Botswana Programme has supported 191 projects with varying successes. Highlands Water Project - a series of dams constructed jointly by Lesotho and South Africa to redirect Lesotho's abundant water supply into a rapidly growing area in South Africa; while it is the largest infrastructure project in southern Africa, it is also the most costly and controversial; objections to the project include claims that it forces people from their homes, submerges farmlands, and squanders economic resources. 1 0 obj One among the important implication is the solid waste generated in the country. Some environmental issues that affect Southern Africa are: water pollution, air pollution, land degradation, solid waste pollution, and deforestation. Degradation in the quality of soil and loss of fertility has also become a very serious concern. Definition: This entry lists the most pressing and important environmental problems. 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