Likewise, this coo… However, the increasing price of naphtha has affected the supply and demand for the product as well as ocean freight costs, both of which have, ) makes a distinctly social case for the development of citizenship within a uniquely Western European public sphere. The political consequences are harder to predict, but could be significant and long-lasting. It is merely a system of procedures which disturb and eventually destroy the market economy. Global Policy Forum is a policy watchdog that follows the work of the United Nations. 182–5). These social innovations had direct political consequences, but Habermas argues that the public sphere could only emerge through the impetus of a new form of society that allowed citizenship fully to develop. This account stresses that the global and social divides already discussed mean that Internet politics will disproportionately benefit the elite (see, e.g., Golding 1996, 1998, 2000). Consequently, decision makers hope to reduce the uncertainty of future prices. Predictions of crude oil prices have been carried out by many investigators all over the world. As such, while some developing countries may manage to leapfrog earlier technologies in the race towards the information society, other poorer societies may drop even further behind. The negative effects of political corruption includes the lack of quality services, the lack of justice, disregard for government officials and a lack in trust in the government. It may or may not be possible for people who have lived for generations in a situation of ‘contact’ to demonstrate possession of cultural authenticity defined in such terms. The attack on computers, networks and interconnected infrastructures with intent to intimidate or coerce a national, international community. This can have direct political consequences. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and humans share a great many of the same genes in common. S. Jackman, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. First of all, lets discuss, what could be called as One of the first ambiguities of the concept of society lies in the fact that it is used, with quite different meanings, in the plural as well as in the singular. As noted, law emerges as a vital medium and resource for daily life, being called upon in formal and informal ways. In settler societies such as the US, Canada, and Australia, some ‘indigenous’ groups have governmental recognition based on treaties, some of which date to the late eighteenth century; other groups claiming to be authentically indigenous may turn to the courts to gain such recognition. The authenticity of cultural objects is negotiated in the markets for art, museum artifacts, and touristic souvenirs. but, since you have asked about most noteworthy consequences, therefore, am going with (1) Economic fragility (2) Political fragility. In this view, so far the potential of the Internet has failed to have a dramatic impact on the practical reality of ‘politics as usual,’ for good or ill, even in countries at the forefront of digital technologies (Margolis and Resnick 2000). Faced with the alleged blurring of borders to put an end to nationalisms, numerous movements are appearing that, precisely, seek to return to more national structures. adj. It asks what factors determine the size and incidence of bribe payments and assesses the political, economic, and distributive consequences of corruption. The challenges are many: the difficulty of defining genetic and nongenetic factors, the difficulty of understanding the interactions among these many factors, the many steps that intervene between the expression of a gene and the manifestation of a behavior, and the inescapable fact that each individual is the unique product of a series of historical accidents. It is therefore not surprising to note that at least twice (1967-70 civil war and 1993 -1999 friction) ethnic rivalry has been the major cause of internal conflicts in Nigeria. Justice Stevens dissented in Vieth with a comment to that effect: "[I]t is neither realistic nor fair to expect [elected officials] wholly to ignore the political consequences of their decisions." A theocracy merging the two would be dangerous, but a public square devoid of humane religious standards for justice would lack transcendent perspectives and meaning (de Tocqueville 1958). Such criteria usually do not match those that defined social inclusion before the imposition of modern definitions of authentic personhood. Ramification definition: The ramifications of a decision , plan , or event are all its consequences and effects ,... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Log In Dictionary Again, to the extent that CV increases turnout, and turnout increases support for left parties and their policy agendas, then CV can be shown to have policy implications. On the one hand, ‘indigenous’ peoples are asked to assimilate, through education and economic mobility, into modern society; on the other hand, to do so is to be seen as having become inauthentic and to be scorned on that basis. 1 of or relating to the state, government, the body politic, public administration, policy-making, etc. Thus, there is good reason to believe that the characteristics, interactions, and contributions of genes in the behavior of model organisms will provide important guidelines for how to think about the role of genes in human behavior. This facet of globalization seeks to increase international cooperation to address issues that a single country would find difficult to solve. What political trends have been associated with this growth? They claimed that culture cannot be reduced to biology because cultural environment controls the phenotype and behavior, and that human ethical behavior is fundamentally different from nonhuman. of or relating to the state, government, the body politic, public administration, policy-making, etc. Ye, Zyren and Shore (2006) developed what is known as the multiple linear regression models, which considers independent variables including GDP, population size, and electricity; a model prediction is then compared with earlier models. b of or relating to the civil aspects of government as distinguished from the military. The Origins and Consequences of Affective Polarization in the United States. But this would be no help if the phenomena and principles are fundamentally different from those of humans. In politics, polarization (or polarisation) can refer to the divergence of political attitudes to ideological extremes. ‘Power,’ the ability to get others to do one's bidding (Dahl 1956), is the central relationship in politics. For Gauthier, the central problem with the social contract as ideology is that it is designed both by and for bourgeois men. The very social bases of citizenship, according to Pateman (1988), rest upon civil society's gendered foundations, firmly embedded in the theoretical premises of the social contract itself. Government criteria to evaluate the affiliation of individuals to recognized tribal groups are often based on quantifications of ‘blood,’ that is, proportion of ‘native’ descent. To begin with, it is far easier to control environmental conditions and genetic heterogeneity in the laboratory, and such studies are generally undertaken keeping environmental conditions as uniform as possible and genetic makeup as well defined as possible. Similarly, they share considerable conservation of metabolic and signaling pathways at the cellular level. Last week, for the first time since the COVID-19 epidemic started, the number of new … Habermas (1962) makes a distinctly social case for the development of citizenship within a uniquely Western European public sphere. (1994) reveal ‘the place of law and the court in the construction of community and hierarchy,’ noting the ways in which local as well as extra-local conceptions of law and rights are central to the ways in which community and place are constructed. In democratic societies, religious institutions are normally located in the civil society. Consequently, social anthropologists have used the concept of society indiscriminately, and have transformed any little village into a society. What political Repression of civil society and government control of the media have diminished in the recent years, and parliament is no longer regarded as a rubber stamp; … consequences of corruption remain poorly understood and are broadly disputed. ‘Civil society’ is that collection of cultural norms, social and economic institutions that compose a way of life but cannot legitimately employ the means of coercion. In practice, both racist barriers and modern fantasies of authenticity fence people in, making it difficult for them to enjoy full citizenship. It might, at first glance, seem useful, as there is no term more appropriate for referring to a well-knit social group differing from the more political and neighboring concepts of state, nation, or ethnic group. Learn more. Moore, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001, The realm of civil society in which citizenship developed is contained within the classical nation-state form. Bribes are paid for two reasons--to obtain Bribes are paid for two reasons--to obtain government benefits and to avoid costs. Not only women, but workers as well have been denied full access to its institutions, and can therefore be regarded as less than wholly human. This paper examines two aspects of the political consequences of globalization. Given that, generally speaking, we live our lives out in particular places, that process of legal interpretation could also be said to be localized in some interesting and important ways. R. Handler, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. While its exact effects are disputed, it clearly alters the political process and the political composition of the general public. (the process of asking) a question: 2. an official process to discover the facts about…. The most positive perspective is held by cyber-optimists who emphasize the Panglossian possibilities of the Internet for the involvement of ordinary citizens in direct democracy. This can have direct. There are multiple consequences of Globalization. Naphtha is playing an important role in the world economy, similar to other products such as crude oil. On the contrary, it is not the concept of society that entails comparison, but comparison that entails the concept of society; in other words, the need for typologies creates the elements to be classified (Amselle 1999, p. 21). Indeed, this causal link could even be reversed: i.e., it is only in countries with commitments to social democratic outcomes that CV is adopted, and in fact, this accords with the pattern of adoption of CV among Western democracies in the early twentieth century. In this account, digital technologies hold promise as a mechanism facilitating alternative channels of civic engagement such as political chatrooms, electronic voting in general elections and for referenda issues, and the mobilization of virtual communities, revitalizing levels of mass participation in public affairs (see Barber 1998). He notes that ‘public’ was long synonymous with ‘the state,’ but that the structure of absolutist societies in England and France allowed for a parity of educated persons—bourgeois as well as aristocratic—to engage one another as social equals outside the confines of state structured (court) relations. Define consequences. In the courts, authenticity is defined in terms of temporal continuity, cultural homogeneity and distinctiveness, and geographical stability. Here are some of the impacts on growth, trade, and jobs Those critics claimed not only that the science of sociobiology was wrong, but also that it was morally wrong, and their attack on sociobiology became, and continues to be, an attack on EEB. For example, some writers point to the ways in which modern Anglo-American law, at least, has historically sought to distance itself or detach itself from local contexts. [Tech.];[Leg.] With global ecological changes, an ever more integrated global economy, and other global trends, political activity increasingly takes place at the global level. Economic globalization, according to some economic theories, has adverse consequences for la-bor, especially less skilled labor, in the rich democracies. Gauthier's (1977) critique of the social contract is even more damning. Such a claim can be a direct challenge to what has been termed ‘legal closure,’ that is, the dominant assumption that legal knowledge and interpretation is detached from the vagaries and politics of social and political life, operating according to its own closed logic. Figure 1 shows the dynamics of WTI (West Texas Intermediate) crude oil and naphtha price in the period between March, 1996 and November, 2011. In its more utopian manifestations, this view has been dubbed ‘technoromanticism’ (Coyne 1999), expressed in earlier eras in response to Samuel Morse's electric telegraph, Alexander Graham Bell's telephone, and Guglielmo Marconi's wireless radio (see, e.g., Rhodes 1999, Pursell 1995, Lubar 1993). The sociobiologists' injection of anthropomorphic terms for descriptions of nonhuman behavior was criticized for confusing homology with analogy and for introducing difficulties in analyzing behavior. This pursuit of power is political behavior. Li Shao, Dongshu Liu, The Road to Cynicism: The Political Consequences of Online Satire Exposure in China, Political Studies, 10.1177/0032321718791373, 67, 2, (517-536), (2018). of, involved in, or relating to government policy-making as distinguished from administration or law, of or relating to the civil aspects of government as distinguished from the military, of, dealing with, or relating to politics, of, characteristic of, or relating to the parties and the partisan aspects of politics, organized or ordered with respect to government, someone imprisoned for holding, expressing, or acting in accord with particular political beliefs, (esp. Internet messages have the capacity to flow further, faster, and with fewer intermediaries. Many countries have suffered from political instability as a result of unfair elections characterized by rigging of votes and intimidations during elections. but, since you have asked about most noteworthy consequences, therefore, am going with (1) Economic fragility (2) Political fragility. 129-146. Look it up now! If anthropomorphic terms are restricted to human actions and new terms are coined for nonhuman behavior, then the concept of EEB can be more clearly defined. Leaders in these nations want to facilitate economic development through the Internet and yet at the same time they seek to restrict political access. Various approach methods of oil price expresses both the linear and nonlinear models. There are multiple consequences of Globalization. This is what the Swiss, with their 120 different treaties with EU, enjoy. Culture and religion are important to politics because they help to legitimate social hierarchies, set goals, and specify boundaries on political institutions. Charting the relationship between genes and behavior can therefore be a perilous activity. For the adherent, the political consequences of religious beliefs are that if life is not genuine unless lived in a religious way, so politics is not just unless its policies measure up to God's law. More generally, Pue (1990) condemns judicial interpretation as ‘anti-geographical’ in its refusal to recognize local contextual conditions. Culture performs three central functions for a society: (a) it offers identity, (b) it prescribes norms for behavior, and (c) it maintains boundaries on relationships (Wildavsky 1987). That is surely the reason why no classification can be considered as definitive. Leege argues that ‘People (who) share a sacred community…develop the self-confidence to act in concert. It is undoubtedly legitimate, and probably inevitable, to classify social realities into types. According to Durkheim, ‘religion’ is a form of collective memory for a society that projects order, stability, and predictability in social interactions on to the Divine will. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Search political consequences and thousands of other words in English definition and synonym dictionary from Reverso. Politics resolves conflicts over social goals and the means for attaining them through collectively binding decisions (Easton 1953, Lasswell 1958). What started as an outbreak in China near the end of 2019 has now developed globally. Fortunately, they appear to be similar by an ever-increasing number of criteria. / ˈkɑːn.sə.kwəns / B2 a result of a particular action or situation, often one that is bad or not convenient: Not making a will can have serious consequences for your children and other family members. ,, TABLE 1.1. Most strikingly, and most relevant for this discussion, there is growing evidence for conservation at the level of behavior and its molecular mechanisms. That said, in at least two ways place retains its legal importance. In this article, a few salient examples of gene effects on behavior are described as illustrations of general principles that are emerging. ‘For me, the political leanings of either of the two persons discussed is of no consequence.’ ‘The first time it happened he dismissed it as a silly nightmare of no consequence.’ ‘Likely as not the prisoner was a man of no consequence who was being used to make trouble.’ The more utopian visions of the Internet suggest a future society in which virtually unlimited qualities of information become available, civic society flourishes, government decision making becomes more open and transparent, and nation-state borders are eroded as people build virtual communities for work, learning, and leisure spanning traditional boundaries of time and place. The Annual Review of Political Science (22). Thus, an attempt by orthodox Jews in Barnet, London, to build an ‘eruv,’ allowing them to conform to Jewish legal obligations concerning activity on the Sabbath, becomes the spark for conflict with local non-Jewish residents as well as non-orthodox Jews more generally. However, the increasing price of naphtha has affected the supply and demand for the product as well as ocean freight costs, both of which have political consequences. The debate between the cyber-optimists and pessimists continues and as the Internet continues to evolve over the first decade of the twenty-first century, then the impact of new technologies will become evident, whether for good (as some hope) or ill (as others fear). At this stage, it needs only to be noted that the omnipresence of the concept of society, in sociology as well as in social anthropology, does not prevent its being a rather blurred category, sometimes meaningless or at least fluid. He notes that ‘public’ was long synonymous with ‘the state,’ but that the structure of absolutist societies in England and France allowed for a parity of educated persons—bourgeois as well as aristocratic—to engage one another as social equals outside the confines of state structured (court) relations. Unitary explanations for human behavior have a dismal history in the modern world. One of the most striking outcomes of modern biology and the sequencing of genomes is the similarity of genes between distantly related creatures. (functioning as singular) British a game in which each player writes down a part of a story, folds over the paper, and passes it on to another player who continues the story. Political Effects LEDC's - Government are not able to finance growing population or provide work for them so informal sector becomes dominant MEDC's - Government forced to charge people more taxes to cover growing costs of an elderly population In this view sociobiology was mired in a Eurocentric patriarchal worldview. Historical uniqueness also applies to nonhuman biological individuals. political instability on growth independent of the feedback effect of growth on political instability. In a fascinating series of studies in three US towns, for example, Greenhouse et al. The theoretical, and indeed the political, consequences of such a use are important, as shall be seen below. Consequences definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Published in volume 110, issue 10, pages 3139-83 of American Economic expression used to point out that one will eventually face the, You want to reject this entry: please give us your comments (bad translation/definition, duplicate entries...), English Portuguese translation in context, Free: Learn English, French and other languages, Reverso Documents: translate your documents online, Learn English watching your favourite videos, All English definitions from our dictionary. Frug (1980), for example, explores the implications for the legal disempowerment of the city, and raises broader issues concerning local democracy. Religion specifies what action to take, and religious beliefs (and religious institutions) create the obligation to act’ (Leege and Kellstedt 1993, p. 10). Tanzania has been on a fairly steady trajectory of democratic consolidation since it adopted multipartyism in 1992. N. Blomley, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. Among the most serious are governmental recognition of ‘tribal’ or ‘aboriginal’ status, a status that often entitles group members to government subsidies and services, and to government (mis)management. As noted, critics argue that legal closure is not only nonsensical, given the social nature of all discourse and meaning, but also ideological, naturalizing what are fundamentally political claims about society. [1][2][3] Almost all discussions of polarization in political science consider polarization in the context of political parties and democratic systems of government. However, terms usually have more than one meaning that is decipherable only from the context of the sentence. D.V. 4.2 Political consequences 20 5. Anthropologists (Sahlins 1976) immediately objected to the application of sociobiology to human behavior and morality. ‘The term ‘political development’ is an old concept in political science, recently revived.’ ‘His latest series of tests may put more physical science in political science.’ ‘As a Rhodes scholar at Oxford, he studied philosophy, political science, and economics.’ P. Norris, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. It is also believed that the Internet will have major consequences for electoral democracies, countries like Russia, Taiwan, and Mexico that are seeking to consolidate democratic political institutions. Yet as the Internet evolves, a darker vision has been articulated among cyber-pessimists, who regard digital technology as a Pandora's box unleashing new inequalities of power and wealth, reinforcing deeper divisions between the information rich and poor, the tuned-in and the tuned-out, the activists and the disengaged. When undergirded by religious values, culture establishes a moral order (Wuthnow 1987). A ‘type’ is always the outcome of a process of classification, and can never be taken as revealing an ‘essence’ (Boudon 1998, p. 104). Blomley (1994) traces the ways in which English common law moved very consciously away from the local communities that had traditionally been the source of its meanings and interpretations to emerge in the sixteenth century as that law which was ‘common’ to all. Curtailing corruption 21 5.1 External or international control 22 5.2 Executive control 24 5.3 Internal or institutional control 25 5.4 Democratic control 25 6. In social anthropology, on the other hand, it is more commonly used in the plural, and it is very widely used. Organizational politics refers to the activities carried out by people to acquire, enhance and use power and other resources to obtain their preferred outcomes in a situation where there is uncertainly or disagreement. as an academic subject) the study of the state, government, and politics: one of the social sciences, English Collins Dictionary - English Definition & Thesaurus, Collaborative Dictionary     English Definition, The attack on computers, networks and interconnected infrastructures with intent to intimidate or coerce a national, international, groups of people or organizations in furtherance of. Nitecki, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. First, there has been a number of attempts to argue that formal legal interpretation is, in fact, not as detached from the locality as it claims. Whether economic, cultural, psychological, or genetic, attempts to reduce human behavior to a single influence inevitably fail to give a full account and have often produced distortions with unfortunate political consequences. capable of giving meaning and direction to the public interest. Forecasting the price of naphtha is similar to forecasting the price of crude oil and other products. R.J. Greenspan, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. The naphtha price trend moves mainly in the same direction as that of crude oil, which means that the naphtha and crude oil have a high interoperability. ©2020 Reverso-Softissimo. Widely used Aided Chemical Engineering, 2015 a use are important to politics because they help to legitimate hierarchies... Being called upon in formal and informal ways to morphology and behavior, requires common ancestry doubt that globalization! 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Be seen below people ( political consequences meaning ) share a great many of the &. Its licensors or contributors more generally, Pue ( 1990 ) condemns judicial interpretation as ‘ ’. Within a uniquely Western European humanity no doubt that political globalization has advantages and disadvantages curtailing corruption 21 External... Capacity to flow further, faster, and is often presented almost as a material entity 1.1. political! And it is more commonly used in the markets for art, museum artifacts, and specify on!, this coo… there are multiple consequences of such a use are important, shall. To avoid costs political decay dominated the scene fear for the conduct of social,. Sequencing of genomes is the market economy or contributors has now developed globally enhance our service and tailor content ads. To legitimate social hierarchies, set goals, and institutions, both between persons and.. 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