This paper aims to review the evidence on the potential roles of modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors associated with periodontal disease. endstream 1 0 obj In a recent study, it was found that the concentrations of hs-CRP and IL-6 were significantly higher in the sera of patients with periodontitis and periodontal treatment decreased the levels of serum hs-CRP and IL-6 [153]. Severe periodontitis, which may result in tooth loss, is found in 5–20% of most adult populations worldwide [3–5]. <>>>/Contents 24 0 R/Parent 3 0 R>> As a response to bacterial endotoxins, the local host inflammatory mediators are activated [94, 147] that in turn initiate localized inflammatory response [148, 149] and finally result in serum antibody response to the bacteria [150, 151]. Strong evidence has implicated Porphyromonas gingivalis [16] and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans [17, 18] to the pathogenesis of adult periodontitis. Other factors increasing the risk of developing periodontal disease: It must be borne in mind that familial patterns may reflect exposure to common environmental factors within these families. v�t�]�қ��Z^�� Ogr�w��/dE�����z���-~������GPʨ�m�Bj�aW����R���BOO��$V�lV ��N�|���+2Cv�W In particular, patients who have undergone heart valve surgery have a significant risk of life-threatening infective endocarditis. 22 0 obj Factors associated with the prevalence of periodontal disease in low-risk pregnant women. Epidemiological and microbiological studies have lent credence to the concept that periodontal disease may be a separate risk factor for cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease [53], and preterm delivery of low birth weight infants [54]. �*T0T0 Bi������f����� �� Also, the classical risk factors of CVD cannot account for all the variation in the incidence of CVD cases [141]. Data. x�+�r Sources. Numerous studies reported higher periodontal destruction among males compared to the female population [87, 115–118]. endobj Shetty M, Shetty PK, Ramesh A, Thomas B, Prabhu S, Rao A. Periodontal disease in pregnancy is a risk factor for preeclampsia. We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. reported increased plasma levels of MMP-8 and MMP-9 in chronic periodontitis patients and emphasized the importance of periodontal treatment to avoid elevated MMP-8 and -9 levels which are associated with many systemic diseases, particularly cardiovascular disorders [96]. endstream �*T0T0 Bi������f����� � � [85] have stressed that it is important to distinguish among osteopenia, which has been defined in general terms as a decrease in normal mineralized bone, postmenopausal osteoporosis, which is a disease caused by the cessation of estrogen production and characterized by spinal fractures that occur between the ages of 50 and 70 years, and osteoporosis, which affects an older population and results in proximal femur fractures [86]. <>stream A. Jones, “Does periodontal treatment improve glycemic control in diabetic patients? Periodontal disease is considered a disease of the poor. Marcaccini et al. endobj Evidence for the existence of high-risk groups and individuals and approaches to their detection,”, S. D. Benjamin and P. N. Baer, “Familial patterns of advanced alveolar bone loss in adolescence (periodontosis),”, J. A recent review on the modifiable risk factors concluded that smoking and excess caloric intake contribute to increases in systemic markers of inflammation and can modify gene regulation through a variety of biologic mechanisms [97]. x��\ݓ��q�ҝ%���*��U*��#��` ��ɒl+Vt�Sq$=pI�.tKr�$o�~�c��L�����d�u%-������|����O~��������/���#��=}y��5����i!���PLC���ܴ�k�zR���WO&Ŵ(��˹qu��nZf��.��^���e3�٭�e�l��Sg]�y�7���˰/_~,����x:��އ�/?���Z�}%�Tq��f���v+M���6�Ufϗ��f�Y�f�x�}�m����� The common bacterial product lipopolysaccharide also may have a triggering role in adverse change of the course of pregnancy. endstream �*T0T0 Bi������f����� � � Changes may also be associated with the use of oral contraceptives. �26S073QI�r � Vogt et al, Reproductive Health. Reports of the familial nature of chronic forms of periodontitis are less frequent, although German studies of the familial nature of chronic forms of periodontitis from the early 20th century have been reviewed by [140]. Men who reported being angry on a daily basis had a 43% higher risk of developing periodontitis compared with men who reported being angry seldom [66]. Sources. Because periodontal disease is a risk factor for developing atherosclerotic vascular disease, diagnosis of the former is important. Am J Dent 27(2): 63-67. Thus, sex may be a demographic factor, which may interfere with the effects of other factors and it must be controlled for investigating the disease. II. (42) longitudinally explored a variety of markers as possible periodontal risk factors in subjects free of periodontal disease. [Article in German] Schneider G(1), Leyendecker SS. We projected the number of dementia cases to be saved by reducing PD prevalence in the world. Review of the literature. �*T0T0 Bi������f����� � Although periodontal disease nosology has changed many times over the timeframe of these reports, most familial reports for periodontitis are for early-onset forms now called aggressive periodontitis [132–139]. As periodontal diseases (PDs) are among the most prevalent chronic infections in humans, there is a mounting scientific interest and public awareness of these possible interactions, mainly due to the like… 19 0 obj - MEDLINE (1980 to Jan 2014), PubMed (using medical subject headings), and Google Scholar were searched using the following terms in different combinations: “periodontal disease,” “periodontitis,” “risk factors,” and “causal.” This was supplemented by hand-searching in peer-reviewed journals and cross-referenced with the articles accessed. Patients with inadequate stress behavior strategies (defensive coping) are at greater risk for severe periodontal disease [60–65]. This paper aims to review the evidence on the potential roles of modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors associated with periodontal disease. Subgingival plaque from deepened periodontal pockets is dominated by gram-negative anaerobic rods and spirochetes [14, 15]. The risk of stroke was significantly increased by the presence of periodontitis [relative risk 1.63 (1.25, 2.00)]. endobj A literature review,”, S. Suresh, T. S. Kumar, P. K. Saraswathy, and K. H. Pani Shankar, “Periodontitis and bone mineral density among pre and post menopausal women: a comparative study,”, R. D. Zachariasen, “Oral manifestations of menopause,”, R. Al Habashneh, H. Alchalabi, Y. S. Khader, A. M. Hazza'a, Z. Odat, and G. K. Johnson, “Association between periodontal disease and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women in Jordan,”, Y. Tayeb, J. Goultschin, M. Fogel, and Z. Schwartz, “The relationship between osteoporosis, osteopenia and periodontitis,”, J. Wactawski-Wende, S. G. Grossi, M. Trevisan et al., “The role of osteopenia in oral bone loss and periodontal disease,”, A. Taguchi, K. Tanimoto, Y. Suei, K. Otani, and T. Wada, “Oral signs as indicators of possible osteoporosis in elderly women,”, K. D. Cashman, “Diet, nutrition, and bone health,”, R. J. Genco, “Current view of risk factors for periodontal diseases,”, R. J. Genco and H. Löe, “The role of systemic conditions and disorders in periodontal disease,”, P. Tiemann, M. Toelg, and F. M. Ramos, “Administration of Ratanhia-based herbal oral care products for the prophylaxis of oral mucositis in cancer chemotherapy patients: a clinical trial,”, T. Waltimo, S. Christen, J. H. Meurman, and A. Filippi, “Dental care of patients with leukemia,”, J. P. Bureau, L. Henry, A. Baz, K. Scherrer, and M. Château, “Prosomes (proteasomes) changes during differentiation are related to the type of inducer,”, S. Offenbacher, V. Katz, G. Fertik et al., “Periodontal infection as a possible risk factor for preterm low birth weight,”, H. Baradaran-Rahimi, M. Radvar, H. R. Arab, J. Tavakol-Afshari, and A. R. Ebadian, “Association of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene polymorphisms with generalized aggressive periodontitis in an iranian population,”, R. C. Page, “The role of inflammatory mediators in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease,”, G. Greenstein and M. Rethman, “The role of tetracycline-impregnated fibers in retreatment,”, A. M. Marcaccini, A. <>>>/Contents 6 0 R/Parent 3 0 R>> Original articles that reported on the risk factors for periodontal disease were included. Some studies have found no relationship between periodontitis and ischemic heart disease [56, 57]. A case-control study in Goans highlighting a review of the literature <>>>/Contents 27 0 R/Parent 3 0 R>> Hormonal fluctuations in the female patient may alter the status of periodontal health [98]. Sources. �3���T%���*�km��u��. It can be certain that gingival health is better among individuals with higher education and with more secure income. Once again, race is not a modifiable factor, and some discrepancies in disease expressions may be explained by the differences in other risk factors between populations. 2014, Article ID 182513, 9 pages, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/182513, 1Dental Health Department, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. endobj This paper aims to review the evidence on the potential roles of modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors associated with periodontal disease. This differential risk for periodontitis is consistent with heritable elements of susceptibility, but direct evidence for a differential genetic contribution to periodontitis comes from several sources. Other dental problems. Periodontal disease and preterm birth relationship : a review of the literature . Like adverse oral health conditions, Alzheimer disease and related disorders are also very common among aging populations. Periodontitis and osteopenia may have common etiological agents that may either directly influence or modulate both disease processes [87]. Factors associated with incomplete coverage,”, S. G. Grossi, R. J. Genco, E. E. Machtei et al., “Assessment of risk for periodontal disease. Many of the studies conducted to date suggest there is a relationship between skeletal osteoporosis and bone loss [75–80] to the extent that postmenopausal osteoporosis may result in dental osteopenia involving the jaws, and particularly the mandible [81]. 13 0 obj 24 0 obj More studies carried out in some of the developed countries show changing patterns of periodontal disease progression. Certain data showed clear relationship between osteoporosis and periodontal disease, and osteoporosis is considered as one of the risk factors for periodontal bone loss. Tobacco smoking exerts a substantial destructive effect on the periodontal tissues and increases the rate of periodontal disease progression [24]. �26S073QI�r � %���� Evidence is reviewed on the potential roles of modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors associated with periodontal disease. 28 0 obj Several studies show that the prevalence and severity of periodontal disease increase with age [87, 106–112]. Drugs can be a contributing factor in periodontal diseases. Box, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Gingival condition is clearly related to lower SES, but the relationship between SES and periodontitis is less direct. This outcome is thought to be the effect of biologic mediators of inflammatory processes such as prostaglandins E2 and TNF. x�+�r [55] have shown that periodontal disease is another putative and independent risk factor for cerebrovascular disease, particularly for ischemic stroke. Yousef A. AlJehani, "Risk Factors of Periodontal Disease: Review of the Literature", International Journal of Dentistry, vol. demonstrate that the composite IL-1 genotype is significantly associated with the severity of adult periodontitis. endobj Risk for periodontitis is not shared equally by the population. Younger people may have different dietary patterns than older study participants. endobj endstream Research in dietary trends in adolescent’s ages from 11 to 18 reveals a significant decrease in raw fruit and nonpotato vegetables, which are sources of vitamin C. In addition, adolescents have decreased their calcium intake and increased their intake of soft drinks and noncitrus juices. Obesity has been reported to be an important risk factor for periodontal disease [69, 70]. Sources. 12 0 obj 27 0 obj A similar finding has been observed even in the elderly population. B. Novaes Jr., C. A. Meschiari et al., “Circulating matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) and MMP-9 are increased in chronic periodontal disease and decrease after non-surgical periodontal therapy,”, M. A. Reynolds, “Modifiable risk factors in periodontitis: at the intersection of aging and disease,”, J. F. López-Marcos, S. García-Valle, and Á. Among susceptible individuals, the prolonged and excessive bacterial promotions of the MMPs induce the enhanced degradation of collagen, which is a primary component of the periodontal matrix. endobj <>>>/Contents 18 0 R/Parent 3 0 R>> Original articles that reported on the risk factors for periodontal disease were included. x�+�r endstream %PDF-1.4 Periodontal disease and periodontal Periodontitis is associated with the increase in the level of C-reactive protein and fibrinogen, irrespective of coronary diseases. Several studies involving different racial populations have found some difference in the expression of periodontal disease [108]. The risk of stroke did not vary significantly with the presence of gingivitis. endobj Taguchi et al. Review . MMP-13 also facilitates bone resorption by degrading the collagenous matrix of the bone after the bone is demineralized by osteoclasts [95]. endobj Furthermore, there is evidence that suggests that the increase in the levels of systemic markers of inflammation, such as the C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), is associated with cardiovascular diseases [51]. Data. SES is a modifiable factor and it can be examined in multivariate models for the disease. 47 articles were identified initially and after applying exclusion criteria only nine articles were selected for this review. This variability in presentation of significant signs of disease makes diagnosis difficult, not only in declaring if a patient suffers from the disease but also in detecting patients who do not suffer from the disease and differentiating between adult and aggressive forms of periodontitis. The author declares that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper. �26S073QI�r � Periodontitis is one of the most ubiquitous diseases and is characterized by the destruction of connective tissue and dental bone support following an inflammatory host response secondary to infection by periodontal bacteria [1, 2]. There are many studies that demonstrate an association between diabetes and an increased susceptibility to oral infections including periodontal disease [30–34]. <>>>/Contents 15 0 R/Parent 3 0 R>> <>>>/Contents 30 0 R/Parent 3 0 R>> �*T0T0 Bi������f����� � Studies have found some periodontal disease indicators such as tooth loss and gingival bleeding to be associated with work stress [66, 67] and financial strains [68]. �26S073QI�r � Tobacco users also are at increased risk for periodontal disease. Drugs such as anticonvulsants, calcium channel blocking agents, and cyclosporine may induce gingival overgrowth [59]. 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Hemorrhagic gingival overgrowth [ 59 ] factors within these families publication charges for accepted research articles as well case! Populations have found no relationship between periodontal diseases between genes and the pathogenesis periodontal., 106–112 ] studies have found some difference in the development and progression periodontal.