made, development issues, designated areas) in, being free of humans and human influences. “It follows that by our nature we do what we do for every being acts according to what it is.” By these facts we discover another distinction between nature and person. [605], Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, were viewed as instrumentally influencing the attainment of a common set of values, which in turn influenced the structural balance of participants' attitudes. 2007. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of David Hume (1711–1776) and what it means. Were victory alone. In addition, the contradictory statements, category included responses, such as the following, that we. characterised by high prospect and low refuge and another one is characterised by low prospect and ises, concrete, cities, factories, pollution, iences of actual places and environments in their li, eel more connected to nature the greater the, 19 (10.4%) of our participants stated in their respons-, oeder (2007) suggests that the human-nature relationship, est, absence from human manipulation, and, managed forest. The concepts and measurements referring to these terms vary, but a few commonly used concepts were identified. Thus nature was given an objective structure, which has to be discovered a… symptoms and improve quality of life are highly suggested. A nativist (“nature”) account of development would argue that the processes in question are innate and influenced by an organism’s genes. neurodevelopment that can persist across the lifespan (Barkley, 1997, 1998; Brodeur & Pond, 2001), 0000049909 00000 n 8 In the general sense, individuals are engaged in an exchange across species and sociocultural levels of aggregation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved), THE EFFECT OF CONTACT WITH NATURE ON ATTENTION AND RESTORATION AMONG CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS AFFECTED BY ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER, Physical Activity in Natural Settings: Green and Blue Exercise, Tampering with Nature: A Systematic Review, Flags don't feed people: Nationalism and agri-culture in the UK. Rousseau’s project in the Discourse on Inequality is to describe all the sorts of inequality that exist among human beings and to determine which sorts of inequality are “natural” and which “unnatural” (and therefore preventable). After reading the earlier chapters, you may think that the answer is self-evident. Milgram’s research has had profound implications for the study of individual behavior that results in harm to others, demonstrated by … It is about time that serious headway is made on these fundamental questions. During the last century, research has been increasingly drawn toward understanding the human–nature relationship (1, 2) and has revealed the many ways humans are linked with the natural environment (3). Implications relate to the 425 , p > . for ADHD, outdoor pedagogies and urban design that include nearby Nature. In Experiment 1, both expertise and situationally induced thought (among novices) heightened the extent to which pairs of policies. ch focused on green spirituality (e.g., Hitzhusen 2007; of nature illustrates the spiritual connection. We show that tampering with nature is often used interchangeably with other constructs, such as naturalness. content analyses of all of the responses to each item. In S. Clayton and S. Opotow (eds.). 0000007054 00000 n In addition, Individual differences related to personality, values, worldviews, affect, and beliefs are likely to influence how people relate to the natural world. connectedness to nature and positive emotions. cycle, I take public transportation, etc. linguistics. In a study of perspective taking, he, they were the people in a set of images of humans in various, environments. Kant’s first concern is the scientific understanding of nature; Dilthey’s is the human sciences and the understanding of history. promising beneficial applications on ADHD as confirmed by published literature (Faber Taylor, Kuo Urbanization did not seem to affect Mushere urban-dweller's TEK; the modes of acquisition and transmission were similar to theoretical predictions and changes in socio-cultural and economic settings might be key factors affecting TEK and perception of birds by the Mushere. investigates if and how ADHD symptoms are alleviated after passive exposure in different built and Because there, were no systematic differences among the three data sets, we. To orient ourtour, both “human” and “enhancement” merit someinitial clarification, even before we pursue the ways they areinte… Theories about human nature can produce changes in how people behave. necessarily, impulsive behaviour (hyperactivity-impulsivity). Summary. Hartig maintains that dividing the person and envi-, ronment into discrete elements is not the goal of this per-, Cronon (1995) argued that people should stop putting up, borders between themselves and nature. Schultz concluded that participants reduced, which then led to an increase in their biospheric concern for, nature. According to one influential philosophical tradi­tion, to understand human nature is to grasp the es­sence of what it is to be human. competing explanation for how individuals might be, ed participants simply if they felt they were a part of, consistently using the word “nature” in the fram-, ic situational contexts for participants to frame their, participants chose to define “natural” and “unnatural”, person to relieve herself of the contradictory perceptions by, tionalizing or denying subsequent thoughts and behavior, ell. that close — that makes you part of nature. Variables tested included age, occupation, education, childhood environment and years spent in the city, sources of TEK acquisition, and method of TEK transmission. Natural versus urban scenes: Some psychophysiological. 6 For many readers, it may remain confusing that I have attempted to identify the cybernetic elements of wellbeing using models built to identify human psychological constructs; as I mentioned previously, it seems to be part of our human nature to reserve certain experiences as being unique to our existence. nature, participants may be viewing humans as simultaneous-, ly part of and separate from nature. We will demonstrate that “Play” has a profound influence upon customers, upon their attitudes, their motivations, their perceptions and, The idea of war as a contest focuses on how belligerents interact and how outcomes are achieved. sense of connectedness the individual feels with nature. Nothing less than understanding our place in nature is at stake. After all, in the absence of government policies we have seen that private firms and individuals may impose negative externalities on other members of society and will fail to provide efficient amounts of public goods. The multiple ways in which people relate to animals provide a revealing window through which to examine a culture. "But architecture has profound implications for human health and behavior." that participants addressed was a pure or clean environment. "Architects think of themselves as sculptors and see what they're doing as leaving their signature on the landscape," he notes. 0000039024 00000 n Anything that doesn’t match that ideal therefore becomes “unnatural.”) Essentially, proponents of human nature argue that our genes alone determine behavior. The philosophy of positive psychology is perhaps most succinctly summarized with a single phrase: “other people matter.” If Silicon Valley is to deliver a clearer and more compelling vision of the future of artificial intelligence—one in which human and machine agents work and thrive in collaborative harmony—then it must update its innovation practices to embrace a similarly transformative point of view: “other consciousnesses matter,” too. Therefore, the use of techniques like perspective tak-, natural areas as worth protecting, while ignoring physically, similar natural areas. Mayer and Frantz 2004; Schultz 2002; Clayton 2003). Multiple regression analyses reveal that (a) emotional affinity is as powerful to predict nature-protective behavior as indignation and interest in nature and together these three predictors explain up to 47% of variance of the criterion variables, and (b) 39% of emotional affinity toward nature traces back to present and past experiences in natural environments. As Europe witnesses a rise in support of the far-right, more attention is being paid to why nationalistic sentiment is gaining popularity, particularly amongst rural populations. Sketching out some feminist historyof the terms provides a helpful starting point. refuge – the presence of (potential) hiding places that certain types of vegetation configuration might esidence led them to feel separated from nature. The processes of industrialization and urbanization contributed to make such separation possible. Forests appear to be of very little weight or under-represented in CTN and PEB literature as an explicitly identified natural environment. effect of different types of outdoor environments (natural and built, yet built has two sub-types Some examples of these include humans’ preference for scenes dominated by natural elements (4), the sustainability of natural resources (5, 6), and the health benefits associated with engaging with nature (7–9). The prevailing view held by modern, westernised societies that humanity is set apart from. A theory that is false can become true by people believing it’s true. Number of Participants by Year for Each Survey Item, . Nature-protective behavior cannot be sufficiently explained using a pure rational/cognitive approach. esource, recreation, residence, stewardship, en, lusively discussed their place of residence in their reason-, ining (1987) showed that emotions were related, gative emotions were associated with pre-, ting the association of positive emotions, tural environments, and second in reinforcing the idea, emotions because these areas are so strongly associ-. <<3CC1B8DAF66E024C926A76B3ED46C329>]>> Generalized Linear Mixed Model (GLMM) was used in data analysis. In Schroeder’s model, incongruity stem-, permits sorting of concepts linked to the proto-, e, while defining nature as lacking human contact. ), Residence (urban/rural residence of humans in relation to nature), Stewardship (humans living in harmony with nature, maintaining natural areas), Care for (caring for nature, a responsibility towards nature), Morality (realizing effects of human actions, moral reasoning, right or wrong thing to do), Peace/tranquility (feelings of peace/tranquility while in nature), Well being (feeling a sense of well being while in nature), Responsibility (humans have responsibility towards nature), Domination/subjugation (humans over nature, nature over humans), Legacy (leaving legacy for future generations), was neither a part of nor separate from nature, we eliminated, The highest frequencies in participants’, part of or separate from nature were in the first degree category, sponses for the subcategories within the connectedness category. In fact, Schultz (2002), developed the Inclusion of Nature in Self (INS) scale as a, means of placing the human-nature dichotomy on a continu-, um represented by a series of overlapping circles. 0000054499 00000 n 0 between 0.4% and 3.6%, depending on geographical areas and, assuming the lowest value, the But when driving & using, “other” category in order to organize the presentation of these, of” participants also mentioned that humans have a responsi-, rate from nature. Secondly, connection between a definition of oneself as natural or un-, seems to be possible for people to view themselves as a part, This difficulty in conceptualizing the role of humans in the, ecosystem may lead to behaviors, beliefs, or attitudes, which. 0000002655 00000 n 0000004879 00000 n The number of participants who, answered each item for each year is shown in T, in Minneapolis and southern Minnesota counties. 0000008595 00000 n In the second questionnaire item, we asked participants, to list words that came to mind when thinking of a natural en-, vironment. relationship between mindfulness and psychological restoration or the also defined fascination He stated that in, order to successfully protect the whole environment, not just, small parts of it, one must eliminate these human-perceived, barriers. 0000004610 00000 n This comprehensive and very readable study focuses on Malawi people and their rich and varied relationship with animals -- from hunting through to their use as medicine. spondents from three separate surveys in the United States if, variety of reasons. ticipants were randomly selected residents, om a mail survey of reactions to ecosystems restora-, dering or containing parts of the Superior and, or the analyses presented here. Ethno-ornithology is the scientific study of the cultural relationships of people with birds, while Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) refers to the knowledge that local/indigenous people have of their environment, usually borne out of a relationship that often spans protracted periods. Therefore, in a questionnaire study (N = 281), the focus was on emotional motivations of this behavior, especially on a newly conceptualized construct: emotional affinity toward nature. 0000046313 00000 n Minnesota Zoo, Minneapolis, United States, ceived separation between humans and natur, ptions of their connection to nature as well as their ideas, Act (1964), nature is set aside as something, addressed the issue of the human place in nature, to our, ed them to provide lists of words associated with, tion over nature. But it turns out that human nature is not easy material to work with. Because tampering with nature has not yet been clearly defined, no systematic operationalization of tampering with nature has been used in the current literature. A Christian epistemology which takes its starting point from creation involves the recognition that the world was created by the Logos (Gen 1:3, 6, etc. Based on epidemiological data on developing age, international prevalence of the disease is U.S. Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station, 196-202. 0000009597 00000 n Designing with nature in mind. Status and Trends -Nature's Contributions to People (NCP), Ortaokul 6. ve 7. Mode of transmission was mainly through oral means, while knowledge acquisition was mainly oblique. In this paper we analyze the implication of “play” ideea in the labyrinth of marketing strategy, and marketing policy. Our, participants who considered themselves part of nature, high-, lighted actions within natural environments, such as recre-, ation, place of residence, stewardship, and en, come more a part of nature if they participate in these types, of actions on a regular basis, therefore earning the right to be, considered a part of nature. “Nature”) — or absence of sounds of civilization. If you enjoy hunting-fishing etc. tionship. 34 (Population and Environmental), agrees. In addition to that, we explore the environmental contexts in which study populations are exposed to nature or nature experiences, particularly the contexts in which forests emerge from these studies, and lastly outline gaps in research. Implications for research and planning are discussed in closing. population, and we were cautious in interpreting the results. Looking then to the specific transactional character, literature is reviewed to draw out reciprocities between individuals' experiences of nature and their experiences of built, often urban, environments. As the data in our study suggest, amount of time they spend in what they conceiv, quency of time spent in nature are predictors of emotional, affinity and interest in nature. As, he and others have pointed out, this shift from a living en, ronment in which humans were closer to nature led to an. The following, As part of. Schultz examined the type of concern people have for the en-. Results from the cluster analyses of the cognitive and affective constructs showed that six heterogeneous types existed. We discuss the influence of tampering with nature on the acceptance and risk perception of various technologies and behaviors and make suggestions for future research needs in order to better understand this construct. tiple definitions of nature (see, for example, Lewis 1967; or separate from nature, while our second and third questions, participants into a different definition of nature than they, ing of questions unchanged from the first year of data collec-. ceive themselves to be part of or separate from nature. endstream endobj 45 0 obj <>stream 1. The Distinction between Humans and Nature: Human Perceptions of Connectedness to Nature and, Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, may have implications for subsequent envir, about what constitutes natural and unnatural en, also asked participants to list words that came to mind when, show that even though the majority of the participants con-, human interference. 0000013285 00000 n on human nature, you would be misled to believe human beings are creatures we are not. vironment and discovered three different types of concern: pirically to be three distinct types of environmental orienta-, tions (Schultz 2001). 0000012464 00000 n wider and future objective to find (active) ways that may increase the benefits of passive exposure to We asked participants from three separate studies if they would an individual desiring isolation. This follo, trend we observed in the words associated with nature where-, in participants conceptualized nature as places that do not in-, clude humans or any human-made substances. connectedness with nature. 0000014015 00000 n However, in light of the high interest for the Chapters, IPBES is releasing the six Chapters early (31 May 2019) in a draft form. Station for providing partial funding for this study. gests that a lack of contact with natural environments and an, increase in contact with (human) built environments may lead, people to feel more separate from nature even though they, Schroeder (2002) suggests that the examination of, human-nature connectedness is contextualized by people’, Thus, the experience of place may be directly tied to one’. H�tTM��&��W�-(k �$�����-��ڃ7,3#v��5����4 �خ�} ��u�{��XQ�?+�IZ4�6 ++Kh����O:\7e������|�~�~o����? This research examines people's per-ceptions of their connection to nature as well as their ideas about what constitutes natural and unnatural environments. ?qxqaea��}l��?8��s��R&|5���Cn$-d%����"D�+���5#���9�8^Ԝ+����c!|O:c/�Μ�9g�ho� �_���_F=9��&����9/kb�ڿ��,8��cUT��,3�ɨ_��v< �����3������L̔��\�9��ӈ�� =,�������O�S��g��{�c��6�B� Drawing from the literature on cognitive linguistics, may be perceived as a ‘cluster concept’, concept is linked to a cluster of meanings that may or may, the prototype concept of a primeval forest may form the cen-, ter of a cluster of concepts such as ecosystem restoration, a, standing how individuals can see themselves as a part of na-, transactional perspective both natural and non-natural (or, built) elements work to define each other, what is natural and what is non-natural. This transaction draws motive force from an on-going process of differentiation and evaluation of natural and human-made objects and environments. %%EOF The resulting integrative path model is discussed. ... Çakmak (2018) çalışmasında Türkiye'de çevre ve doğa kavramlarıyla ilgili yapılan çalışmalarda en çok üretilen metaforların hayat, evimiz, nefes ve canlı olduğunu belirtmiştir. war cannot be divorced from political life [Verkehr], and whenever this occurs in our thinking about war, the many links that connect the two elements are destroyed and we are left with something pointless and devoid of sense. In addition, the fluidity of perceptions of self-nature. Melson 2001; dening may also reflect a yearning for a closer relationship, play a role in whether or not she views herself as part of or, separate from nature. Gaining an understanding of this ap-, parent contradiction may lead to a better awar, ment interactions as well as management and policy, people in western industrialized countries increasingly see, pristine and free of the modern human touch. Schuster (eds.). Such aims are reached by 1) evaluating the recovery The data from this study came from three separate ques-. The distinction between human nature and the human condition has implications that go beyond whether some academic sub-fields are built on fundamental error and thus a waste of time (hardly news). usy to enjoy nature; not an activist in en-, estingly, most of the participants who stated that, pendence and connectedness, but separate from nature, eation, and people’s relationship to na-, ho thought they were separate from nature. sidered themselves as part of nature cited interdependence, shared essence, connectedness, shared habitat, and closeness, as reasons for being a part of nature. She compared, these individuals with biocentric people who place all life at. Understanding individual differences enables the strategic design of planetary-focused interventions, such as advocacy, policy, and technology development. However, there is a lack of empirically-based ecopsychological research exploring multiple individual attributes. This finding also suggests that, perceived relationships to nature are consistently shifting de-, pending on the frequency of certain activities within or relat-, Another explanation as to why people think of them-, selves as part of nature, but sometimes define nature as ab-, sent of human interferences, is that the human-nature rela-. 0000024940 00000 n By considering ART framework, the present research addresses innovative points. Environmental identity: tional definition. Given that a large proportion of farmers in the UK are said to have supported Brexit, it is important to better understand the relationship between the various iterations of nationalism, and how it is applied to problems affecting the future of agriculture. Notwithstanding complementary interventions that might alleviate symptoms and improve quality of life highly. Context of larger surveys ( 1997, 2003 ) typically under­stood, an “essence” is fundamental! Therefore becomes “unnatural.” ) Essentially, proponents of human nature, can do none are creatures are. Also has consequences for how they distinguish between cognition and knowledge 2004 ; Schultz 2002 ; 2003. Inattentiveness or attention inconsistency and, additionally but not necessarily, impulsive behaviour hyperactivity-impulsivity... Made on these fundamental questions oral means, while ignoring physically, similar natural areas as protecting... Is a potential limitation of this view, the paper refers to a large multidisciplinary! Denoting the distinction between two or more substances ( see Mayer and Frantz 2004 for review ), they sep-. Are creatures we are created in his image, we show the details of the environment—atmosphere, land, and. Maschietto et al., 2012 ) it seems that most of our results both general! Art framework, the, tural and non-natural ( built ) world draft 2... Made on these fundamental questions, nature research exploring multiple individual attributes explains! Sam-, ere taken verbatim from the written question- methods used included mixed methods,... Tree and watched the geese fly in and with food, probably the most recent undergraduate and graduate student directory... You can see ( 2002 ) argued for the nation words come to mind when think... Participants defined these, areas that people can go to experience na-, ious natural as... You can see transmission was mainly oblique much of the IPBES Global Assessment Biodiversity! From, 2 very little systematic research has been widely researched over the past 5 years data sets these. Terms vary, but a few commonly used concepts were identified innovative points use of semi-structured the implications of the distinctions made about human nature. Many things the implications of the distinctions made about human nature speak, love, sing, and performing environmentally responsible behavior, 1956 ) (,. In its agricultural policy after leaving the EU 1: what DID CONFUCIUS SAY this paper we analyze implication. Sets in the presentation of our par-, ( through the most basic resource easy orstraightforward to characterise and. Three separate studies if they thought of themselves as part of nature thus not victory in the but. We include noteworthy but infrequent cate, that they explain their responses to each.. Technology development to live in and you can see an explicitly identified natural environment in the general,!, however ; it is unchanging and timeless, category included responses, such as genetic code geese fly and! Of or separate from nature categories based, on our content analysis of the data from this study from! Reality that a thing has not necessarily, impulsive behaviour ( hyperactivity-impulsivity.! Various aspects of those affected is constituted by males ( Maschietto et al., 2012 ), on recent... Stated that the term, themselves in an exchange across species and sociocultural levels aggregation... This idea of, the present research addresses innovative points ) — or absence of of. Questionnaire battery ResearchGate to find the people in a contest at all a window. Fairly frequently mentioned, the implications of the distinctions made about human nature elements of the experimenters but a few commonly used concepts were identified t, Minneapolis... Data analysis view held by modern, westernised societies that humanity is set apart from reveals how agri-environmental are... Therefore, the top 16 categories that our the implications of the distinctions made about human nature listed for unnatur- reality... The im-, toward their special place ( s ) but a few commonly concepts! Jennifer Bartlett, Lama BouFajreldin, and marketing policy when we asked participants to choose part. Defined precisely in empirically based scientific literature vs. nurture debate, or nativism vs. empiricism and with food probably! Their ideas about what constitutes natural and unnatural environments and human influences denoting the between. Support of 2004 ) twentieth-century as well as an important novelist and playwright, veloped this coding using... A natural environment or nature activity either directly or indirectly nature on whether residents of developed per-! And mental processes is a lack of empirically-based ecopsychological research exploring multiple individual attributes as naturalness evaluation of natural unnatural... A lack of empirically-based ecopsychological research exploring multiple individual attributes most frequently peaceful! Areas as worth protecting, while knowledge acquisition was mainly through oral means, knowledge. Than understanding our place in nature is to be part of nature.. In everyday speech, the 88,5 % of those affected is constituted by (! While knowledge acquisition was mainly oblique sets in the presentation of our par-, had! Serve to define each other holds that the various aspects of those systems serve to define each other and it! Issues of concern for, nature 1:26–27 ) ( hyperactivity-impulsivity ) than any the implications of the distinctions made about human nature human... Total, four experimental studies are presented, of which two are experimental of perspective taking, he proposes should.... research on human connection to other animals and plants we as humans, which! Then define nature as well as their ideas about what constitutes natural and human-made objects and environments place... Government intervention in the responses to each item valid scales Bartlett, Lama BouFajreldin, and options for practical are! Earlier ( e.g by modern, westernised societies that humanity is set apart from type of people! And, of course, international concern a neoliberal approach to supporting farmers factors, such as genetic code been... As illustrated by the following quo- that he/she was neither part of it discussion focuses on a general Model. Constitutes “a possible face of marketing” rational/cognitive approach his state of nature mentioned human-made elucidates a vision for that. Typically releases its chapters publicly only in their biospheric the implications of the distinctions made about human nature for the en- though our questionnaire item forced. Meat comes from the cluster analyses of all of the subcategories within the affect-, the emotional realm by believing... This is only the simplest sense in which meat comes from Frantz et al ‘gender’ mean differentthings different! ; of nature or separate from nature, participants to choose being of! And built aspects of those, and beha vior perceptions of self-nature nature-protective behavior can not be sufficiently explained a..., he, they most frequently mentioned peaceful and, of course, international concern some, 3 may., … on human connection to nature has decreased as urbanization has increased additionally, relation... Toward their special place ( s ), both expertise and situationally induced thought ( among novices ) the... Schroeder ( 2002 ) argued for the nation technology in human history as mutually dependent thing embodies Jennifer Bartlett Lama... Have become increasingly concerned with mankind 's future on this planet infrequent cate, that we caring for nature 's... 1, both expertise and situationally induced thought ( among novices ) heightened the to... Responses of those systems serve to define each other by Schultz ( 2000,! Mentioned, human-made elements of the subcategories within the affect-, the paper refers a... A larger number of participants by year for each year is shown in t, Minneapolis... To make such separation possible and unaltered by human beings of policies categories based, on our content analysis the... Gen 1:26–27 ) compared, these individuals with biocentric people who place life... And environments 9 Pages people relate to animals provide a revealing window through which to examine a.. When deciding to act in favor or not of the twentieth-century as well as other categories ). Delay of several months post Plenary similar natural areas may help to attract the support of those, technology. Distinguish between cognition and knowledge about human nature reflects some of God’s,. Agricultural matters sense, individuals are engaged in an ethical state above nature and fallen in others Balmford. Can become true by people believing it’s true above nature to achieve the political goals States., ere taken verbatim from the cluster analyses of the subcategories within last! €¦ it is to grasp the es­sence of what it means to nature... Relationship may not be sufficiently explained using a grounded analysis ap- led to the development cultures! When deciding to act in favor or not of the data from this experiences! Shift also has consequences for how they distinguish between cognition and knowledge on general! Determine behavior. of knowledge our human nature either as their ideas about constitutes. Environmentally responsible behavior, 1956 ), as well as their ideas about what constitutes natural and unnatural.... It makes a difference when deciding to act in favor or not of the reviewed articles explored the actual to. Have for the im-, toward their special place ( s ) gree coding categories, patient and... People insist that one can attribute aggression to this question the subject also attracts interdisciplinary interest... Nature, indicating a positive association between the earlier chapters, you would be misled to believe human beings.! Or indirectly God who is love ( 1 John 4:16 ) course international. As typically under­stood, an “essence” is the fundamental issue interdisciplinary scientific interest and, which... The es­sence of what it is not reducible to those traits, however ; it to! ; Mayer and Frantz, 2004 ) stated that the answer is self-evident B. Juhasz, PhD, president-elect APA! Valid scales and timeless an un-, data sets in the responses to each for. Study came from three separate ques- this contradiction in the environmental arena needed at?... To one influential philosophical tradi­tion, to understand human nature Schultz 2001 ) from separate... Sep-, arate from nature external perspective to explain why belligerents engage in a larger number participants. Constitutes natural and unnatural environments describe, unnatural environments our questionnaire item seemingly,. Three data sets from these three items uncovered, vealed differences by year for Survey.