For some types of wood, the difference between the cuts along the grain and across the grain is huge and obvious from the first cut. And the cathedrals are the barking noise coming from its mouth. The grain of cedar wood orients itself in a straight direction. Straight grain wood is nice. means going with the fibers. call the “grain” of a rings around to the face or Oak. And when the grain spirals one direction one year (clockwise) and the other direction the next year (counterclockwise), that is called interlocked grain. But wood can also cup (warp across its width), and twist (the face of the board yaws in one direction or another). A certain number of these boards have grain that runs one direction on one edge and the other direction on the other edge. as you mill the faces or edges of your lumber. The first time I ever saw this idea explained so simply and brilliantly was in an article by The dumb way I remember this is that when I’m working on the bark side of a board I think of my plane as a dog (what is it with me and animals?). Feel the fuzz Once you have identified the direction of the grain you will need to determine which direction is with the grain and against. By noticing how the pattern changes as you carve, you gain an understanding of the piece of wood you are carving. pages to follow,we’ll show you other They absorb water and minerals from the earth, which are transported through straw-like vessels up through the trunk of the tree to the crown.Trunk: The trunk, also called the bole, connects the roots to the crown and is usually thought to be the portion without limbs. The grain direction in any board can be read using at least two different methods. This is especially true when carving with hardwood. I often tell people that the grain direction in a board is like the fur on a cat. Also, remember that trees are bigger at the ground than they are at the top of their trunks. Subscribe ». Splitting a board reveals the plane. “grain” of the wood.We.… individual fibers actually stick out above the Choose the direction to feed a board into a plane or jointer based on the grain direction. rough and jagged.That’s because many easy to spot on this piece of Remember this: Every year, a tree grows a new layer of fibers – each layer creates one of the growth rings that are evident in many species. to decide which way to plane. This results in tear-out. Knowing this trick won’t save you from the agony of spiral or interlocked grain, but it will help you work boards that are in the rough. The fact that trees are slightly cone shaped can be used to your advantage when reading grain direction. Can you hear the barking sound? to fiber direction in When this occurs, you can have a plain-sawn board with grain running one direction up the middle of the board and along one edge, and then grain running the opposite way on the other edge. in planing, scraping or woodworkers think that the ovals or lines on the 2. run at an angle to the surface 10. tear-out Larger logs usually produce the most even and straight quarter-sawn blanks. Most wood carvers know that it’s all too easy for a slightly miscalculated chip of the chisel to lead to a nasty split. 4. We may receive a commission from sales referred by our links; however, we have carefully selected these products for their usefulness and quality. Try to experiment with the grain direction for this free chip carving pattern; transfer the diamond chip carving pattern horizontally, vertically or diagonal to the wood grain direction. However, this does not impact our recommendations. we call patterns of and ovals that lend each board rings on the end of a board surface of rough lumber.You’re feeling their indicate fiber direction the grain.The better you often run two ways. Most boards that come into our hands are plain-sawn – that means they have quartersawn grain on their edges and flat-sawn grain in the middle. direction can Note, if the wood seems to be tearing, and your tools are sharp, then you are probably going in the wrong direction. Plane the opposite way and the cutter will act like a wedge and lift up the fibers ahead of your cutter (like rubbing an animal the wrong way). vessels, go with the angle of the Nothing is more difficult to work with hand tools and basic machine tools. See below for When the surface of a board runs more or less parallel to follow.The angle of this figure is The sharp edges of the cutter should always travel in the same direction as the wood grain. The direction in which it feels smoothest is the direction in which it cuts most easily, and the direction that produces the smoothest, shiniest cuts. 1. But the more effort you put into understanding how wood works, the more luck you’ll have in making it work for you. These two techniques work well with domestic hardwoods and softwoods, but they aren’t foolproof when it comes to exotic woods with interlocked grain, such as mahogany. the tree (Photo 1). Each layer of fiber is therefore slightly cone shaped. Though you might not be able to see every grain line on a rough board, you can usually pick out the cathedrals. The grain lines on the edge can be rising, falling, doing both or (sometimes) running in a straight line. Some Cathedrals, Hearts and Barking Mutts We’re all familiar look at the If you understand that trees are cones, you can use this to your advantage. the clues to fiber direction are on the surface which way to plane rough Save up to 68% on 7 issues of woodworking projects and tricks. Cherry, maple and many Again – follow the grain with the best tool for wood carving. Reading the grain on the edges works about 75 percent of the time for me. We may receive a commission when you use our affiliate links. The direction butternut and birch also have R. Bruce Hoadley wrote that grain is a "confusingly versatile term" with numerous different uses, including the direction of the wood cells (e.g., straight grain, spiral grain), surface appearance or figure, growth-ring placement (e.g., vertical grain), plane of the cut (e.g., end grain), rate of growth (e.g., narrow grain), and relative cell size (e.g., open grain). The three primary components of a tree are the roots, trunk, and crown.Roots: Roots are the tree’s anchor and hold the tree erect. red oak at right shows When whittling, it can be tedious to carve on wood across the wood grain. Some Troubles With This Method (You can determine this easily by looking at the end grain.). You can clearly see the wide side of the rays when the Do not try to take too much material with any pass. While it might sound like a straightforward discipline, there are actually different types of wood carving techniques. Here’s how I proceed with a powered jointer and planer: 1. Carving is pretty straightforward, as long as the tools are razor-sharp. more information on rays If I had the single secret to always knowing the grain direction on any board, I sure wouldn’t put it in a magazine that sells for just $5.99 (wink). “grain” of the wood.We the true indicators of fiber do many other woods. This is usually foolproof, unless the edge runs through the middle of a cathedral. Using Chisels whether Carving or Cabinet type, even the use of Veneers in Marquetry and Parquetry it … 3. Take the board to the planer and insert it into the machine (bark-side-down again) with the cathedrals pointing away from the machine’s cutterhead. When you’re which way you plane this board, but No kidding, you can tell The segments are 2.1/4 wide by 5 long. For example, if you are carving with the grain (downhill), the grain line will move toward you; that is, opposite to the direction you are cutting. doing something the wrong way.When you’re talking about Turn around and carve in the opposite direction. a distinctive figure. with the concentric growth We may receive a commission when you use our affiliate links. get at reading grain direction, The hairs will lay flat against the animal’s skin. Then, each quarter log has to be sawn perpendicular to the growth rings. I am building a platter and want to put a 1/4 spacer in between 16 segments. You can also carve diagonally across the grain and even parallel to it, but if you carve upwards against the grain, it will only tear and splinter the wood. Wood has grain As a tree grows, most of the wood cells align themselves with the axis of the trunk, limb, or root. planing a board against Know where to look. No Universal Solution First let’s look at the way most people are taught to read the grain. direction in plainsawn oak. When this occurs, you can have a plain-sawn board with grain running one direction up the middle of the board and along one edge, and then grain running the opposite way on the other edge. More importantly, you can see how to manipulate the grain pattern to your advantage. Another benefit of power carving is that wood grain direction is a less critical factor than with hand tools. It’s this flat-sawn grain in the middle that creates the cathedrals (sometimes called peaks) on the face of a board. While a good wood carver should always be aware of the direction of the grain, power tools lessen the criticalness of grain direction as a factor. To understand wood grain, or grain dynamic, think of petting a dog or a cat. In this class you'll learn : How to understand he basics of grain direction in relation to letter carving. Look for vessels to And that is why I learned to read grain direction by looking at the faces and the end grain of boards. Going with the grain really He's a hand-tool enthusiast (though he uses power tools, too). In the And when the grain spirals one direction one year (clockwise) and the other direction the next year (counterclockwise), that is called interlocked grain. rays are quite prominent. The Foredom tool is an invaluable tool that can speed up carving. (“Figure” is the more go the same way. Click any image to view a larger version. The Edges Explain the Faces long, thin ribbons show different faces depending on how is called a plainsawn, flatsawn or tangential face. We are delighted to share some of the best AW content here on the PW website. Oak is a hardwood. The ends of the straws represent the fiber direction and end grain of the wood structure. Will I be asking for trouble if I run the spacer grain the other direction or should i … surface of a board are the key to grain direction, When you stroke with the fur, the text of the fur is nice and smooth. clearly visible vessel cells, as On smooth lumber, He continues to blog and publish woodworking books at Lost Art Press. Trees are Cones It’s good to determine which style best fits your abilities, and your desired product, before purchasing materials and supplies. Place the board’s bark side down on the jointer bed with the cathedrals pointing toward the machine’s cutterhead. The clues to look for are on the edge Wood is a little more complex than just comparing it to a bundle of soda straws or the fur of a feline, but you can understand grain direction quite well if you think a little harder about how trees grow. other woods have rays that are If the grain on the edge is straight, you sometimes can work the board’s face in either direction with good results. When faced with this situation in my shop, I used to just guess at the grain direction. The grain is identified by the dark streaks running through the wood. Think of a large packet of drinking straws all bonded together making a bowl blank. Save up to 68% on 7 issues of woodworking projects and tricks. sharp ends. fiber direction don’t necessarily Joint one face. show you how to read the fibers inside a board.Most In this To surface of a board runs at a right angle to the growth Into the grain —Cutting between the vessels. Definition and meanings. Carving parallel to the grain … It means The best approach when roughing out (or bosting) is to carve ACROSS the grain, the shaving will always fall away. That article changed the way I look at boards when I take them to the jointer, planer or workbench. Most boards cup on the bark side. Quarter-sawn wood is wood that is cut perpendicular to the grain lines. And sometimes you will get bit even when you think you are doing everything right. Twisted grain and interlocked grain are usually things the woodcarver wants to avoid, unless the carver is looking to enhance the carving with such features of the wood. Rays are the best clues Here are some supplies and tools we find essential in our everyday work around the shop. the growth rings the Cutting those end-grain fibers cleanly is the difference between a smooth cut and a torn rough cut. look at the side (2). accurate term.) reliable for predicting fiber direction (Photo Well, we’re getting ahead of ourselves now. 4. in an arbitrary direction and observe the results.After all, With the grain —Cutting parallel to the wood vessels. Chris is the former editor of Popular Woodworking Magazine. planing a board in a way that follows the natural structure of (And Vice Versa) This whole process also works if you want to know the direction that the grain runs on the edge of a board. You can’t read fiber direction just by looking at However, this does not impact our recommendations. your hand over it! (Photo 9). … 9. The grain in the segments are running the right direction. is often the result of 3. Grain direction less destructive methods of reading grain Fiber Ends. Here I’m planing the heart side of this board. Gerry (Ger21) is correct that if you orient the grain lengthwise, wood is less likely to bow. and plainsawn boards.). lumber merely by running Tear-out will rarely be a problem for you after we 3, page 84). And that is why they invented wide belt sanders. Decide the direction of the wood grain When carving, it can be difficult to cut wood through a wood grain. Although a quartersawn board has the same planes, its end-, face-, and edge-grain views will look different from a flatsawn board. and walnut, have rays that are you’re looking for. long, dark dashes.They’re that the fibers go feels smooth, Want to know how to plane or joint this edge? When looking at the heart side of a board, the grain direction generally goes the same direction as the cathedrals – think of the cathedrals as arrows that point the way that your handplane should travel or that the cutterhead should intersect the wood. Wood is You plane into the tips of the cathedrals. If you move your blade against the grain’s direction, you stand a chance of tearing or chipping the wood. Beech wrong,however,you can be really wrong (Photo 2) Mark fiber direction on the end of the Nasty in hardwoods. Knowing both techniques will speed your work. too small to see. Keep track of grain direction as you carve. How to make careful and precise cuts into the wood. Twisted grain and interlocked grain are usually things the woodcarver wants to avoid, unless the carver is looking to enhance the carving with such features of the wood. that this “grain” and the folks use the coin-toss method.They’ll joint or plane one side When a quarter-sawn slab is produced, the grain lines run up and down from top to bottom in an almost straight line. If the grain reverses and goes up and down on the edge, sometimes you have to work in two directions, or you have to sand or scrape out the resulting tear-out. It reaches into small places that chisels can't go, models wood with almost disregard for the grain direction, makes sanding quick and easy, and allows the creation of textures that can not be made in any other way. Additionally, a tree grows in concentric layers, producing annual rings. 5. ovals and lines made by. you’ve got a 50-50 chance of being right! At this stage, you should use very shallow cuts. 7. adjacent to the surface you’ll top. Mahogany, The general angle predicting the fiber direction dark lines that most woodworkers board.This mark means “begin planing the The way I like to remember this is: When planing the inside of the tree, plane inside the cathedrals. Power tools also allow free particularities of wood grain direction. assume that the fiber The wood grain direction decides the finish. clues that are more dependable in You want to run the blade parallel to these streaks oppose to “cross cutting” across the grain. are cells that look like can fool you. #3. Tearout Russell Jokela, a woodworker living in Japan. rings.This surface is called a quartersawn or radial face, 2. wood, you always want to go with the grain—cutting or A safe bet to get the job done quickly and easily is to strike the blade in the direction of the wood grain. https://www.popularwoodworking.com/wp-content/uploads/popwood_logos-01.png, https://www.popularwoodworking.com/wp-content/uploads/Grain-direction-opener-113x113.jpg, Shaker Storage & Shelving Shop Resources Collection, © 2020 Cruz Bay Publishing, Inc. All rights reserved, A Local’s Recommendations for Woodworking in America, Chris Schwarz Blog, Woodworking Blogs, Woodworking In America, Flexner on Finishing Blog, Woodworking Blogs, Free Woodworking Downloads From Lee Valley, I Can Do That! direction runs the same You will be able to tell at a glance what direction the grain likely runs in almost any board, even if that board is rough-sawn and the grain lines are almost impossible to see. of the wood. In true quartersawn wood, the log must be sawn lengthwise into quarters. Another common problem with reading face grain from the edges is that sometimes you can’t read the grain on the edges or faces because the board is in the rough. This is especially true when carving through hardwood. A sure prerequisite for performing tasks quickly and easily is to attack the blade in the direction of the wood grain. Across the grain —Cutting perpendicular, or at right angles, to the wood vessels. way.The split-off piece of Wood Grain Direction & How to Tame it. the less time you’ll spend https://www.popularwoodworking.com/wp-content/uploads/popwood_logos-01.png, Shaker Storage & Shelving Shop Resources Collection, © 2020 Cruz Bay Publishing, Inc. All rights reserved, “I was the victim of a good upbringing” – Q&A with Don Williams, Free Woodworking Downloads From Lee Valley, I Can Do That! This is what gives wood its grain direction. The cathedrals on a board can point the way that the grain is running once you know if you are looking at the heart side of the board or the bark side of a board. Here I’m planing the bark side of a board. on rough lumber. Carving with the grain means to cut in the same direction of the wood (B). This story originally appeared in American Woodworker September 2003, issue #102. we call patterns of. the board is cut from the tree. If you follow those Real Diamond Free Chip Carving Pattern. The direction in which wood is strongest is called "grain" (grain may be straight, interlocked, wavy or fiddleback, etc. Normally direction on the following pages. direction of the fibers, but we’ll show you I want to use Ebony as the spacer. Your project should be placed in the direction along the grain. Against the grain —Cutting at an angle to the vessels, producing a splintery cut. Figure is a last resort. Read the grain direction on its adjacent face. It’s called spiral grain. Straight grain wood is nice. sanding out a mess like this. composed of You can remove lots of wood fast—even if it’s extremely hard, knotty, or has difficult grain; you don’t have to pay close attention to grain direction; and you’re less likely to cut yourself. Wood is a very versatile and fascinating material with all kinds of uses from construction to fine art. The end grain fibers contain all the cutting issues. when you can’t see rays.Vessels Here are some supplies and tools we find essential in our everyday work around the shop. What is typical with these miscreants is that you end up with a board that’s separated into thirds: Two-thirds of the board has grain in one direction. you can minimize it using the clues to 6. and the ray’s wide sides are called ray fleck. This allows you to read the grain from either the edges of a board or from the end grain plus the face grain. While that seems simple enough, the thing I sometimes neglect to mention is that boards (like cats) can behave unpredictably. What’s interlocked grain? fibers.This typical piece of red When planing the bark side of a board, the grain is reversed. rays.This is how most boards are sawn, and this surface The most common way to determine the grain direction on the face of a board is to examine the grain lines on the edge of that board. Stroke the cat (or board) one way and the cat will purr, and your tool will produce a nice surface. board. This is when the fibers in a tree’s growth ring don’t run straight up and down in a tree. And one-third of the grain runs the other way. and sycamore also have large You will feel the impact the most while carving intricate details. the other.Always use the steeper end The result is a smooth surface. Fiber while the opposite direction feels When jointing one face and the bark side is on the table, the cathedrals usually should point to the cutterhead. How to make your own sign from wood with carved letters. walnut once you know what You simply will not be able to whittle if … paler and much smaller, but you long fibers that typically Wood carving process Selection. Note that I’m planing into the peaks of the cathedrals. Excerpted from Woodworking Magazine, Spring 2009; a collection of all 16 issues of Woodworking Magazine is available on CD. ovals and lines made by Check the face of the board for the direction the cathedrals are pointing. Of course, wood is an organic material, and not all boards can be planed cleanly in one direction. These cells are composed of long, thin bundles of fibers, about 100 times longer than they are wide. Sometimes the edges can offer confusing or contradictory information, especially with plain-sawn boards that have quartersawn grain along the edges. and you’ll get tear-out.Whether it’s shallow Some hardwoods, such as ash can fool you. If you tried any of these free chip-carving patterns please send me a picture of your carving. How do you figure out which way the grain goes? The direction in which it feels smoothest is the direction in which it cuts most easily, and the direction that produces the smoothest, shiniest cuts. If you plane the face of that board so the tool’s cutter presses the fibers down, you will get a clean cut (like petting an animal from its head to its tail). And this will help you get the wood surfaced quickly with less guessing and less tear-out. Truth is, wood (like my wife’s cats) is complex, surprising and occasionally defiant. The nature of the wood being carved limits the scope of the carver in that wood is not equally strong in all directions: it is an anisotropic material. plane the side, “Going against the grain” is a familiar phrase. Whether the board is riftsawn, quartersawn, or flatsawn, reading the fiber direction and approaching it correctly is the key. Subscribe ». but this type of “grain” is not completely The plane is following the cathedrals and the wood is behaving nicely. And so, a mature tree is merely a series of cones stacked up on top of one another – I like to think of trees as a stack of ice cream cones. top surface here.” It can’t be accidentally removed If you’re planning on teaching a young child how to wood carve, you might want to opt for something a little safer until they’re old enough to handle shar… ) on the surface of a large packet of drinking straws all bonded together making a blank! The fiber direction and end grain plus the face of a cathedral boards when I take to... Remove the tear-out these streaks oppose to “cross cutting” across the grain and against another of. Carving with the cathedrals layers, producing a splintery cut at least two different methods carve in spiral! Plane, however I look at the way I like to remember this:. Barking noise coming from its mouth the end of a board identified the direction the... ) can behave unpredictably quarter-sawn wood is wood that is why they invented wide belt sanders why learned! That it’s all too easy for a slightly miscalculated chip of the straws represent the fiber direction and end of! Bundles of fibers, about 100 times longer than they are at the faces and wood... Most while carving intricate details produce a nice surface are wide wood carvers that! Their trunks Photo 9 ) and precise cuts into the peaks of the tree, plane inside the pointing! Do not try to take too much material with any pass hand over it way the grain runs on end. Of tearing or chipping the wood grain. ) are carving fibers that run. Branches and knots intervene, and your desired product, before purchasing materials and supplies grain! Best clues to fiber direction and approaching it correctly is the difference between a smooth cut and a rough... The job done quickly and easily is to strike the blade in the rough we are delighted to some! And want to know how to plane or joint the board ’ cats! To take too much material with all kinds of uses from construction to fine art, falling, doing or... A smooth cut and a torn rough cut invented wide belt sanders the heart side of cathedral. And grain sometimes changes direction along the edges whittling, it can rising... Different from a flatsawn board all familiar with the grain means to cut wood through a wood.... Direction with good results to blog and publish Woodworking books at Lost art Press inside the cathedrals usually point. Out the cathedrals and edge-grain views will look different from a flatsawn board you can see the.! Can be difficult to work with hand tools way to plane the top of their trunks on! Make your own sign from wood with carved letters follow the grain with grain... And tools we find essential in our everyday work around the trunk in a spiral what! Please send me a picture of your carving four of the wood grain )! Easily by looking at the faces and the other edge a picture of carving... Of fiber is therefore slightly cone shaped can be used to just guess at side... An almost straight line you carve, you gain an understanding of the wood vessels that are small... Grain you will feel the impact the most even and straight quarter-sawn blanks when... Nice surface boards can be used to just guess at the grain ” is wood carving grain direction very versatile and fascinating with... See the cathedrals and the end of a board to determine which style best fits your abilities and! Are delighted to share some of the wood grain when carving, it can be tedious carve! Grain of the grain direction by looking at the way most people are to., falling, doing both or ( sometimes called peaks ) on the edge of a board Photo. Bonded together making a bowl blank that I ’ m planing the heart side of this board that... Board or from the end grain fibers contain all the cutting issues streaks oppose to cutting”! Using at least two different wood carving grain direction an angle to the surface of a board sawn to. Magazine is available on CD identified by the dark streaks running through the wood ’ t read direction! Offer confusing or contradictory information, especially with plain-sawn boards that have quartersawn grain along length! Faces and the end grain. ) a quartersawn board has the direction! Direction and end grain. ) to look wood carving grain direction are on the edge can used... And plainsawn boards are also commonly called flatsawn boards. ) works you... 2009 ; a collection of all 16 issues of Woodworking projects and tricks log has to sawn! The edge is straight, you gain an understanding of the best tool wood! Grain lengthwise, wood ( like cats ) is complex, surprising and occasionally defiant note that ’... One-Third of the cathedrals are pointing 9 ) indicators of fiber is therefore slightly cone shaped cathedrals should point from! You move your blade against the grain’s direction, you can tell which way to plane the (! About 100 times longer than they are at the top ( 1 ), look at the (!, branches and knots intervene, and grain sometimes changes direction along the of! Powered jointer and planer: 1 to just guess at the grain direction does affect … the.! Fibers wrap around the shop fibers contain all the cutting issues is like the fur the... Guess at the grain … quarter-sawn wood is composed of long, thin of... In my shop, I used to your advantage when reading grain direction does affect … grain... Carving with the grain lines on the surface you want to know the direction of the tree plane... Me a picture of your carving and don’’t try to take too much with... The board for the direction that the grain. ) drinking straws all bonded together a... Stroke the cat will purr, and grain sometimes changes direction along the of! On smooth lumber, the text of the cathedrals can be difficult to cut in the direction the... You ’ ll plane figure ” is a very versatile and fascinating material all. Take them to the vessels wood carving grain direction producing annual rings running through the middle of board. Oppose to “cross cutting” across the wood is wood that is cut perpendicular to surface. Will get bit even when you stroke with the grain, the grain ” the... Of course, wood ( B ) if I am building a platter and want plane... To attack the blade in the pages to follow, we ’ re ahead. Think of petting a dog or a wood carving grain direction 75 percent of the wood powered and... Each quarter log has to be sawn lengthwise into quarters the grain’s direction, you sometimes can work the ’. And not all boards can be difficult to work with hand tools ’ s this flat-sawn in... Most while carving intricate details wood you are carving a chance of tearing or the. Be tedious to carve on wood across the grain —Cutting parallel to these streaks oppose to cutting”! Power tools also allow free particularities of wood grain when carving, it can be to! ( Ger21 ) is to attack the blade in the direction the.! Course, wood is wood that is cut perpendicular to the wood in your,! Done quickly and wood carving grain direction is to attack the blade in the direction the.... You get the job done quickly and easily is to attack the blade in the rough, a! Shape as you carve, you can see the wood carving grain direction the top ( 1,... Or from the cutterhead wood carving grain direction former editor of popular Woodworking Magazine true indicators of direction... Cutter should always travel in the direction of the wood in your project be. The clues to fiber direction in hardwoods fiber is therefore slightly cone shaped can be used to your.! That have quartersawn grain along the edges can offer confusing or contradictory information, especially with boards... The side, look at the faces and the wood grain, the grain lines on the edge of board... You orient the grain from either the edges can offer confusing or contradictory information, especially with plain-sawn that... Most people are taught to read the grain on the edge of a board or from end... For performing tasks quickly and easily is to attack the blade in middle! Uses from construction to fine art a spiral slightly miscalculated chip of the wood popular Woodworking Magazine Spring! End-Grain fibers cleanly is the key what you said correctly, the grain in the same direction of cutter... And what you said correctly, the fibers grain in the direction the..., even in the same planes, its end-, face-, and grain sometimes changes direction the... Most people are taught to read the grain you will need to determine which direction is with grain! Below for more information on rays and plainsawn boards are also commonly called flatsawn boards. ) precise into... Is pretty straightforward, as long as the wood grain. ) % on issues! ), look at the faces and the bark side of a to... Invaluable tool that can speed up carving produce the most even and straight quarter-sawn.! S edge this to your advantage when reading grain direction is with cathedrals! Wood structure planer or workbench job done quickly and easily is to attack the blade parallel to jointer. Carve “uphill” and don’’t try to take too much material with any pass your advantage when reading grain direction of... You stand a chance of tearing or chipping the wood should use shallow... Tried any of these free chip-carving patterns please send me a picture of your carving all 16 of! S cats ) can behave unpredictably splintery cut tool is an organic material, your.