Plant life is influenced by the amount of rainfall. Winter rainfall region, rain throughout the year, summer rainfall region. TROPICAL WET. The south-western parts of RSA, Western Cape. The two regions are identified based on the spatial distribution of high seasonal fractions of annual rainfall for the period 1979–2016. The stability of these maritime air masses is induced by their passing over the cool body of water offshore. The hot, dry continental tropical air mass, which is present in the upper levels of the atmosphere, descends to the ground only at the convergence zone. First, most of the continent—which extends from 35° S to about 37° N latitude—lies within the tropics. North of the equator most rain falls from April to September, south of the equator the rainy season is from October to March. Typical climatic conditions consist of high, seasonally well- distributed rainfall and a small range of temperature except in locations where the seasonal shifting of the trade winds leaves a part of the year relatively drier. High-resolution rainfall data are often required as input into continuous simulation hydrological models and other hydrological studies. These are the hot desert, semiarid, tropical wet-and-dry, equatorial (tropical wet), Mediterranean, humid subtropical marine, warm temperate upland, and mountain regions. Where is the Winter rainfall region found? 4.1 Modified Equatorial Climate of the Coast. The temporal characteristics of rainfall variability in Africa are examined using departure series for 84 regions of the continent and five larger-scale zones. In most of southern Africa, rainfall peaks in the austral summer/boreal winter. The site interpolates data using weather stations that are within close proximity to your inquiry. Sahel rainfall is dynamically linked to the global Hadley cell and to the regional monsoon circulation. Differences in temperature between day and night or often larger than between summer and winter. Africa straddles the Equator from 37⁰ N to 34⁰ S. Africa has two Sub-tropical belts with the ITCZ somewhat equidistant from the two high pressure zones. Tropical Savanna - Tropical. A follow-up report that provides a specific focus on the climate of the semi-arid regions of southern Africa is currently under development. The Highveld meets this definition and probably owes much to unaided nature for its creation and perpetuation, since fires caused by lightning strikes are relatively frequent. When considered in detail, the movement of air masses and their effects provide the basis for a division of the continent into eight climatic regions. The rainforests consist of various layers of vegetation, from shrubs and ferns on the ground to trees that grow up to a height of 50 metres. We focus on the April rainfall, a month of high seasonal rainfall over west and east tropical Africa (e.g., Washington et al. Near the equator there are two very wet seasons, as the sun passes overhead in spring and fall. It is a region of diverse people and cultures. While the Western Cape has a Mediterranean climate with winter rainfall, most of the country experiences summer rain. This region is characterized by rainfall throughout the year, but it is heaviest in summer. Types of Climates. The climate across West Africa varies from arid to tropical monsoon conditions. In East Africa Rodhe and Virji (1976)used agraphical technique inexamining the nature of trend of annual rainfall of 35 stations concentrated mainly i~~Kenya and northern Tanzania. At the ITCZ itself, however, precipitation is prolonged and intense as air converges between the maritime and continental air masses and is forced aloft. Countries in this region comprise of South Africa, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Swaziland, Namibia, Mozambique, Malawi, Lesotho, Botswana, and Angola. This is an improvement from the previous season, where less rainfall resulted in adverse impacts on agriculture, water resources and hydropower generation in most of the region. Although not indigenous to Africa, as with the potato in Ireland, maize has become a staple for many smallholder farmers, and is now favoured over more traditional crops such as sorghum and millet. The humid subtropical marine climate is restricted to the southeast coast of Africa. These quantify the strength of seasonality, and the wet-season start- and end-dates, length, total rainfall amount, number of rain days and rainfall intensity. In contrast, Zhang, Brandt, Guichard, Tian, and Fensholt reported a stronger recovery of rainfall totals for the 1983–2015 period in the broadly defined West African Sahel, compared to regions to the East (Chad, Sudan), but lack of ground calibration for the satellite‐based data set in the latter region … The region could also experience as much as one meter of sea-level rise by the end of this century under a 4 C warming scenario. South Africa experiences a high degree of sunshine with rainfall about half of the global average, increasing from west to east, and with semi-desert regions in the north-west. Average annual rainfall exceeds 200cm to 250cm. North of the equator most rain falls from April to September, south of the equator the rainy season is from October to March. Since the coastal regions are at a lower altitude, high temperatures are experienced. The summer rainfall over the JJAS region is negatively correlated with ENSO. In regions of high or complex topography such as the Ethiopian Highlands, downscaled projections indicate likely increases in rainfall and extreme rainfall by the end of the 21st century. around Malindi, Mombasa, Tanga, Dar es Salaam, Kilwa etc. Our latest episode for parents features the topic of empathy. (b) Shows the climatological seasonal cycle over the region marked in red in (a), and the 2019 seasonal cycle from CHIRPS and TAMSATv3. South Africa’s highest rainfall occurs in the eastern and southern mountains such as the Drakensberg, from Limpopo, through Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal to the northern parts of the Eastern Cape. Precipitation of Equatorial Climate: Equatorial regions receive rainfall throughout the year and thus there is no dry season. Humidity is always high, making life in this region very unpleasant. In South Africa, south of KwaZulu-Natal, the winter rainfall is more pronounced, and the … Name the 3 most important rainfall regions in South Africa. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Predicting shifts in rainfall patterns in South Africa is much less certain. The box in (a) shows East Africa region of study, and the averaging region for time series in (c) and (d), where dotted lines show the medians (med), lower quartiles (LQ) and upper quartiles (UQ) calculated using data within the range of years listed in the figure legends. The diverse climates of Africa range from scorching deserts to icy glaciers, from steamy rainforests to grassy plains. Climates of Africa - "Low" and "High" Africa. The temperature here averages 16.9 °C | 62.4 °F. Through the Africa Rainfall Project, researchers at Delft University of Technology will create high-resolution computer simulations of localized rainstorms in sub-Saharan Africa. Immediately south of the convergence zone, rainfall is heavy because of the unstable nature of maritime tropical air over a heated land surface. Hot, dry continental air masses originating from the high pressure system above the Sahara Desert give rise to dusty Harmattan winds over most of West Africa from November to February. © Gayaza High School Geography Department 1.1 General overview The climate across southern Africa … In doing so, one has to meet two challenges. comm., 2012 Jul 6). Rainfall influences Africa’s agriculture. Most parts of Africa are warm or hot, but rainfall varies from region to region. Moreover, a quasi-permanent subtropical high-pressure cell (the Saharan anticyclone) develops in the heart of northern Africa, while in Southern Africa the belt of high pressure on land weakens during the time of high sun (the season when the Sun is overhead—in December and January in the south). The winter months are much rainier than the summer months in Cape Town. The ITCZ (also known as the heat Equator) moves between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn depending on the season. Most of Africa is divided into wet and dry seasons. Even the driest month of the year receives rainfall more than 6cm. Areas that experience tropical monsoon climate include areas along the coastal belt e.g. Urban areas, for example, have climates that often differ in many respects from those of the surrounding countryside. In western Africa the period of low sun corresponds to the harmattan season. There are seven climatic regions in Kenya. The region’s terrain ranges from grasslands and deserts to forests. While maize is productive, its key limitation is a lack of tolerance to high temperatures and drought conditions. Temperature. Higher latitudes in the tropics. In order to understand the distribution of natural vegetation, agriculture, wildlife, and domestic livestock in Africa, we must consider climate. Rainfall varies from 500 to 1 100 mm with a short winter dry season. Cape Town climate summary The Cape Town lies on 27m above sea level In Cape Town, the climate is warm and temperate. Climate Information Tool, Monthly Data This tool provides data for any location in Africa, even if no weather station is available. The tropical wet-and-dry region is often called the savanna climatic region; this implies, incorrectly, that all areas with savanna vegetation have this type of climate. OND rainfall across East Africa in 2019. Some attribute this decline to anthropogenic forcing, whereas others maintain that it is a feature of internal climate variability. While the Western Cape has a Mediterranean climate with winter rainfall, most of the country experiences summer rain. Typically experiencing higher average temperatures, urban areas also frequently have less wind and lower relative humidity; there is too little relevant data from Africa, however, to permit a detailed study of urban climates. While these factors help to account for the broad climatic patterns of the African continent, there are nevertheless numerous local variations to be found from place to place within the same climatic zone. During the period of low sun in the Northern Hemisphere (from December to January, when the sun has moved to its southern limit), the situation described above is reversed. Interactive Grammar and Vocabulary Exercises, East Africa hit by severest drought in 60 years. At this season the whole of northern Africa (except the Atlas Mountains) is under the dry continental tropical air mass, while Southern Africa receives rainfall except in the Cape region and on the southwest coast, where the maritime air mass remains stable offshore over the cool Benguela Current. In Africa: Highveld grassland. Droughts are becoming more widespread across the Sahel and eastern Africa. This report provides a general overview of the regional climate in southern Africa. The regional rainfall pattern for the 2019/20 agricultural season is encouraging, as parts of southern Africa are expected to receive adequate rainfall in the first half of the season. A number of factors influence the climate of the African continent. This symmetry is, however, imperfect because of a third factor—the great east–west extent of the continent north of the Equator, in contrast to its narrow width to the south. The grassland classification is restricted to regions with 10 percent or less woody plant cover. In sub-Saharan Africa, 95 percent of agriculture depends on rainfall, which makes accurate weather forecasts absolutely crucial. The Mediterranean coast as well as the southern part of Africa get rainfall during the winter months. The Indo-Gangetic Plains located South and upwind of the Himalayan foothills. The region’s climate is mainly influenced by large scale seasonal atmospheric patterns and the warm waters of the tropical Atlantic Ocean. They are home to thousands of plants and animal species. According to Köppen and Geiger, this climate is classified as Csb. 4 Climatic Regions in Kenya. Warm all year, distint rainy or dry seasons, at least 20 inches of rain during the summer. Iquitos (Peru), Akassa and Ocean Island receive 261 cm, 366cm and 213cm of rain per annum respec­tively. a The mean austral spring and summer (September–February) rainfall (shaded; mm) across southern Africa based on CHIRPS data from 1981 to 2018.b A zoomed in version of the mean spring and summer rainfall for the southeast region of the domain. Summer rainfall in one of the world's most drought-prone regions can now be predicted months or years in advance, climate scientists at the Met Office and the University of Exeter say. The hot desert region consists of the Sahara and Kalahari deserts, which are always under the influence of dry continental tropical air masses, and the northern Kenya–Somali desert, the aridity of which is principally caused by the stable nature of the maritime air masses that pass over it throughout the year. Rain falls only in winter (December–January in North Africa, June–July in Southern Africa), although in some localities it may fall in autumn (September in North Africa, April in Southern Africa). In fact, the climate of Africa is more variable by rainfall amount than by temperatures, which are consistently high. Most of Africa is divided into wet and dry seasons. The IPCC expects Central Africa to see a decrease in the length of wet spells and a slight increase in heavy rainfall. In the desert regions of the Sahara, Namib and Kalahari rainfall often drops to under a hundred cm a year. The humid subtropical marine climate is restricted to the southeast coast of Africa. There is no rainfall on the northern side of the convergence zone, since the region is completely under the dry continental tropical air mass originating over the Sahara. Climate regions in Africa are under change, maybe due to global warming. New Delhi: Scientists have found that aerosols like black carbon and dust, which makes the Indo-Gangetic Plain one of the most polluted regions of the world, have led to increased incidents of high rainfall events in the foothills of the Himalayan Region, according to an official statement. Temperatures are relatively high throughout the year and the majority of the Other parts of Africa usually have one wet season which gets shorter the farther away you get from the equator. In recent years with similar climate drivers (1998, 1999, 2005, 2007, 2010, 2016, and 2017), rainfall was below average (Figure 1). Thorn woodland, grassland, and semidesert vegetation. While Western Cape gets most of its rainfall in winter, the rest of the country is generally a summer-rainfall region. North Africa has an arid desert climate, with high temperatures and very little precipitation (although temperatures in the mountains and the Sahara at nighttime can drop below freezing). They differ from true desert regions in being just within reach of the ITCZ in the course of its seasonal movement and therefore receiving more rainfall. Each region and sub-region of Africa is changing differently but an emerging commonality is a shift towards more intense rainfall - even where there is observed and projected future drying. The Sahel region covers a belt of grasslands south of the Sahara stretching from Senegal to Sudan. The coldest regions of Africa lie in the eastern highlands and southern Africa. As in the desert and semiarid climatic zones, mean monthly temperatures show less variation than daily temperatures. In some areas, like the Sahel zone, there are large differences in rainfall every year. Temperatures are about the same as those in the desert regions. In response to the increasing climate-related health threats, member states in African region in 2016 adopted the Regional Strategy for Health Security and Emergencies which, along with the International Health Regulations, aims at strengthening countries’ capacities to detect, prevent and response to public health emergencies. A fourth factor consists of the cool ocean currents, which chill the winds that blow over them and thereby influence the climate of the neighbouring shores. The Sahara is moving southward and more and more areas are threatened by deforestation. The convergence zone moves southward, dipping into Southern Africa. African deserts are the sunniest and the driest parts of the continent, owing to the prevailing presence of the subtropical ridge with subsiding, hot, dry air masses. The rainfall is high and ranges between 1000mm and 1800mm. These northern and southern air masses meet at the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). The rainfall is high and ranges between 1000mm and 1800mm. This is the area of massive uplift over Africa and very high rainfall figures In addition to aridity, the desert climate is characterized by high mean monthly temperatures; the diurnal (daily) temperature range is, however, greater than the annual range of the mean monthly temperature. For example, the rainfall may be monsoonal and the second rainy season may be all but nonexistent. These quantify the strength of seasonality, and the wet-season start- and end-dates, length, total rainfall amount, number of rain days and rainfall intensity.  Most of Africa lies in the tropical or subtropical region. Problem. We then explored how these characteristics … In South Africa, south of KwaZulu-Natal, the winter rainfall is more pronounced, and the temperatures are a little lower than in the north. Fifth, because of the extensive plateau surfaces of the continent and the absence of high and long mountain ranges comparable to, for example, the Andes in South America or the Himalayas in Asia, climatic zones in Africa tend to shade into one another, rather than change abruptly from place to place. The air masses of relevance to the African climate may be broadly classified as maritime tropical, maritime equatorial, continental tropical, maritime polar, and continental polar. In the savannahs and grasslands longer grass is replaced by shorter grass as you move away from the equator, with trees scattered in-between. Instead of spring, summer, fall, and winter, most countries south of the Sahara Desert have dry and rainy seasons. Their graphical technique indicated no significant rainfall trend except in the northeastern region of Kenya where an increasing annual rainfall tendency was displayed. hourly or sub-hourly, to represent different intensities. In July the ITCZ—following the sun—moves northward toward the area of low pressure over the Sahara; there the maritime and continental tropical air masses converge, with the maritime air masses swinging inland from the sea. Stations very close to the Benguela coast tend … Although some high-level similarities are evident, digging into the specifics of certain regions and countries shows that Africa comprises a range of distinct investment destinations, each with its own attractions, flaws, cultural differences and business practices. In the four equatorial regions rainfall tends to peaks in the boreal spring and autumn. Near the equator there are two very wet seasons, as the sun passes overhead in spring and fall. In summer, moist equatorial air masses originating over the Atlantic Ocean bring annual monsoon rains (Nicholson, 2013). Toward the coast the climate shows maritime characteristics, and there is a tendency toward winter rainfall. During this time heavy rain falls every day in the afternoon. The great distinguishing feature of this climatic region is the seasonal character of its rainfall. (a) Shows the percentage of normal rainfall received over Eastern Africa in October–December 2019 from TAMSATv3 (mean based on 1985–2019). During the period of high sun, the maritime air masses produce up to six months of rainfall, the length of the rainy season depending on nearness to the Equator. The highest temperatures of the continent are measured in the desert regions of the Sahara, where daytime temperatures reach up to 50°C.  Nights can be cool and frosty, even during the summer. World climates are generally divided into five large regions: tropical, dry, mid-latitude, high latitude, and highland.The regions are divided into smaller subregions that are described below. We used rainfall and temperature records between 1987 and 2016 from 46 weather stations across South Africa to calculate annual rainfall seasonality characteristics using two methods. However, because rainfall in this area is often localized—sometimes almost at the level of one farm—it's difficult to forecast accurately with satellite data, which show larger weather patterns. The harmattan is a warm, dry, northeasterly or easterly wind that blows out of the southern Sahara and is frequently laden with large quantities of sand and dust. The Llanos of Columbia is characterized by mean annual rainfall of 200cm-400cm (near Andes Mountain), mean annual temperature of 22°C, and maximum temperature of 32°C. Thus, at Port Elizabeth there are six months when temperatures are below 62 °F (17 °C), while at Durban mean monthly temperatures do not fall below 64 °F (18 °C). Simply click wherever you want on the map to access it. Rising greenhouse gases have boosted rainfall in the Sahel region of Africa, easing droughts that killed 100,000 people in the 1970s and 1980s, in a rare positive effect of climate … In the northern and southern extremities of the continent, there is a dry summer subtropical, or Mediterranean, type of climate. Also shown in panel b are the … Climate is shaped by the interaction of several interrelated factors; the most significant are altitude (topography) and rainfall. Climate is a long-term weather pattern, the sum of features such as temperature, rainfall, and wind. The Sahara Desert is the massive but largely empty region in North Africa that contains the world's largest hot deserts; The Maghreb is a region of northwest Africa encompassing the coastlands and Atlas Mountains of Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. Only the southern tip of South Africa receives rainfall at this time, from winter cyclones. The rainiest areas are the Lake Victoria basin, the mountains, and the coastal islands, which receive more than 59 inches … hot region like a tropical rain forest. In South Africa, the largest highland area is the Highveld region, more than 1 000 m in altitude, bordered by the Drakensberg, reaching more than 3 000 m. The mountain ranges in the Cape region also belong to this ecological zone. South Africa experiences a high degree of sunshine with rainfall about half of the global average, increasing from west to east, and with semi-desert regions in the north-west. Less hot than the continental tropical are the maritime tropical and maritime equatorial air masses, which originate from the Indian and South Atlantic oceans, respectively; they differ only in that the maritime equatorial air mass is unstable and brings rain while the maritime tropical air mass, when fully developed, is stable and does not normally bring rain unless it is forced to rise by a high mountain. Yet, these regions are densely inhabited and are net exporters of high-quality agricultural products. tips of Africa. The use of high-resolution rainfall data inherently accounts for the temporal distribution of rainfall intensity. 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