Streets RJ, 1962. Little EL Jr, Wadsworth FH, 1964. Termite resistance of wood species grown in Hawaii. Adult leaves are petiolate, leathery, discolorous, glossy and dark green above, pale green below, broad-lanceolate, up to 17 × 4.5 cm.Inflorescences, flowers and fruits 1, 265pp. Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett RT, 2009. A handbook for their identification. Commonly called swamp-mahogany in Australia, it is usually called robusta eucalyptus in the United States (2,16), and beakpod eucalyptus in Puerto Rico (17). The juvenile leaves are petiolate, ovate, up to 19 × 8 cm, strongly discolorous, green, opposite for several pairs, then alternate. E. robusta occurs naturally in Australia, within a narrow coastal strip from southern New South Wales (near Nowra) to coastal south-eastern Queensland (north-west of Bundaberg). Grubben GJH, Denton OA, eds. Introduced to Hawaii around 1900. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 11(1):49-57. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. No. Serv. ; 24 pl. and Eurymeloides sp. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. It is hardy to zone (UK) 9. Craciun GCJ, 1978. Robusta Eucalyptus wood: its properties and uses. There are presently 789 recognized species of eucalypt, together with a further 123 subspecies or varieties, giving a total of 912 eucalypt taxa (Wilcox, 1997). A guide to species selection for tropical and sub-tropical plantations. Pretoria, South Africa: Department of Forestry. Eucalyptus robusta is an evergreen Tree growing to 30 m (98ft) by 20 m (65ft) at a fast rate. Wallingford, UK: CABI. CABI is a registered EU trademark. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 19 pp. In Sao Paulo, Brazil, E. robusta has been attacked by the bacterium Phytomonas tumifaciens [Rhizobium radiobacter] (National Academy of Science, 1983). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii, revised edition. Derniers chiffres du Coronavirus issus du CSSE 08/12/2020 (mardi 8 décembre 2020). However, this species has a wide ranging physiological adaptability, and may establish successfully on sites of much lower rainfall (min. Marked by deeply furrowed dark gray-brown bark, eucalyptus robusta grows well in Halawa. The planted forest and the private forest of the Madagascar highlands. ; disc depressed; valves rim-level or slightly exserted, usually apically joined. bivalvis (Blakely) Blakely Eucalyptus robusta var. Mature trees of E. robusta are remarkably tolerant of frost, especially given that frosts are uncommon in the species' natural range. Melbourne, Australia: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation. Wood in Australia: types, properties and uses. 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. The bark is rough and persistent to the small branches, thick, held in coarse, soft, spongy, elongated slabs with deep longitudinal furrows, grey or reddish grey-brown (Brooker and Kleinig, 1994). E. rotunda occurs naturally in the warm humid climate zone, ranging from regions with rare winter frosts and a summer maximum, to a uniform distribution of rainfall throughout the year (Boland et al., 1984). However, the high humidity causes shrinkage and expansion which makes it unsuitable for furniture construction in most areas (Skolmen 1971, 1974). Geary TF, Meskimen GF, Franklin EC, 1983. Turnbull JW, Doran JC, 1987. Shrub and tree species for energy production. Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press. Eucalyptus robusta var. (1977). ; ISBN 0-621-04763-5; 208 ref. Pacif. Booth TH, Nix HA, Hutchinson MF, Jovanovic T, 1988. Washington DC, US; Department of Agriculture. Volume 2. Brooker MIH, Kleinig DA, 1983. Eucalyptus robusta, commonly known as swamp mahoganyor swamp messmate, is a tree native to eastern Australia. In Australia mature seed may be collected during the summer months from December-February (Boland et al., 1980).Associations. PSW-169, 12 pp. (Base de dados nacional de espécies exóticas invasora)., Florianópolis - SC, Brazil: I3N Brasil, Instituto Hórus de Desenvolvimento e Conservação Ambiental. The sapwood is pale brown, 40 mm wide and susceptible to attack by lyctid borers (Keating and Bolza, 1982). Dordrecht, Germany: Kluwer, 247-265. ex Maiden, E. citriodora Hook., E. raveretiana F. In Australia, it is used in general construction and for underground pilings, utility poles and fence posts. Marcar NE, 1993. Pap. Serv. Griffin AR, 1989. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp, USDA-ARS, 2014. It also grows on the offshore islands of North Stradbroke, Moreton and Fraser in south-east Queensland. An annotated bibliography of selected species with plantation potential. This can be avoided if the timber is air-dried to less than 30% moisture content before kiln-seasoning (Keating and Bolza, 1982). Nairobi, Kenya: International Council for Research in Agroforestry. 18. Special areas in Hawaii: Wahiawa, Aiea, Kalopa, Tantalus, Pepeekeo. Hernández-Hernández RM, Ramírez E, Castro I, Cano S, 2008. In 1995 it was estimated that Eucalyptus plantations amounted about 14.6 million ha worldwide (PROTA, 2014). Lebot V, Ranaivoson L, 1994. Dunn GM, Taylor DW, Nester MR, Beetson TB, 1994. Eucalyptus robusta is naturally found in Australia growing in a narrow band on the east coast from Jervis Bay in New South Wales to Rockhampton in Queensland, appearing in open forests around swamps or along saltwater estuaries to an altitude of 600 m (1,968 ft). Présentation de Eucalyptus robusta (Gommier robuste, Eucalyptus des marais) : noms scientifiques et vernaculaires, statut de protection (listes rouges, réglementations), statut biologique en France Métropolitaine, données historiques et contemporaines. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html, PROTA, 2014. North American Forestry Commission. Berkeley, CA: US. Washington, DC, USA. Online Database. Industrial application of micropropagation. Plantation forestry in the tropics. Jacobs MR, 1981. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. E. robusta forms pure stands or may be associated with other eucalypts such as E. resinifera, E. gummifera (syn. Therefore, the probability of this species colonizing new habitats or being intentionally introduced into new habitats remains high. Pacif. Useful trees of tropical North America. PROTA4U web database., [ed. They have been known as E. patentinervis R. T. Baker and have been recorded as a koala food tree (e.g. Pap. Morgantown, WV: Commune-Tech Associates. Umbellasters 7- to > 11-flowered; peduncle broadly flattened, 13–30 mm long; pedicels terete, 1–9 mm long. ; 5 ref. Tissue culture of Eucalyptus. 11. Eucalyptus Overview. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. In vitro plantlets of Eucalyptus robusta 'Matong' Liked by Hamed Hassanzadeh Khankahdani. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx. ; 25pp. Australia: Hamlyn. Spatial Search Select ONE of the following THREE spatial options; AND if required, select the plant group(s) to include in your search Other Australian states: Qld. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx. 2518 Beziehungen. © Copyright 2020 CAB International. The wood of E. robusta forms excellent stakes used in irrigation systems, and for conveyor-belt slats used in the sugar industry. 2. flowering twig Growing exotic forests. An icon used to represent a menu that can be toggled by interacting with this icon. 102. A gardener's guide to eucalypts. Blacksburg, VA, 116-122. South-east Asia, Northern Australia and the Pacific. In the USA, E. robusta is used to produce rotary cut construction grade veneer. El-Gholl NE, Alfenas AC, Crous PW, Schubert TS, 1993. Pryor (1976) lists E. robusta as one of the eucalypt species most commonly planted outside Australia. Seed dispersal is largely by wind and may begin within 6 weeks after the capsule ripens. ; 22 pl. 1968. In summary, E. robusta provides a moderately durable hardwood with an air-dry density of 805-900 kg/m³ for wood from natural stands in Australia and 725-800 kg/m³ for plantation timber in Hawaii (Keating and Bolza, 1982). A strong-growing, tough tree that does well in poor swampy or salty soil; also adaptable to a dry climate. ; 72 ref. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2, Govaerts R, 2014. The only other consistently rough-barked species in this group is E. botryoides, which prefers similar coastal but less wet habitats (Boland et al., 1984). Field guide to eucalypts. ex DC. (syn. Eucalyptus robusta. Distribution and occurrence: Locally abundant in heath on low swampy sites on sandy soils; north from Moruya. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html. Govaerts R, 2014. USDA-ARS, 2014. A classification of the eucalypts. ), scale (Eriococcus coriaceus [Acanthococcus coriaceus] and E. confusus [Acanthococcus confusus]) and Christmas beetle (Anoplognathus sp.). Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Incidence of mycorrhiza in nursery and Eucalyptus spp. Skolmen RG, 1963. 4th ed. Seed development and germination in the Myrtaceae. Wagner WI, Herbst DR, Sohmer SH, 1999. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. 24. In: Recovery Outline for the Kauai Ecosystem. http://i3n.institutohorus.org.br, Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Simons A, 2009. Complément Alimentaire Indications ⭐ ARTICULATIONS Acheter ARTICULATIONS Indication du Complément ⭐ ARTICULATIONS Bénéfices, Effets et Vertus ARTICULATIONS Achats Avis Compléments Alimentaires Super Aliments : Utilisation, Propriétés Bienfaits Its fast growth rate makes it ideal for homeowners and landscapers seeking a quick growing tree.Instead of waiting 30 years for shade and property value increases, the Eucalyptus Tree grows as much as 6 feet a year!The Eucalyptus Tree is an evergreen, so its healthy green foliage is visible even during the dull winter months. Also published by PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia. of ref. of ref. Soerianegara I, Lemmens RHMJ, eds. Pengalaman Agricultural and Natural Resource center of Fars Province Research Sep 1995 - Kini 25 tahun 4 bulan. 159, 51-59; 27 ref. This is the case in Madagascar, where extensive plantations of this species provide fuel, charcoal, transmission poles, construction timber, bridging material and flooring (Bertrand, 1992). ; [ACIAR Monograph No. It is not favoured for general building purposes because of degradation during drying (Bootle, 1983), or for steam-bending (Keating and Bolza, 1982). xxi + 362 pp. The heartwood is pale red when freshly cut, but turning orange-red or red-brown with age. World Agroforestry Centre. Ruskin FR, 1983. However, hybrid breakdown (e.g. Peanuts (groundnuts), oil palms, and fruit trees are also important, while robusta coffee is the main cash crop. In Sri Lanka and India, a well-known pathogen of tea Cercosporella theae [Calonectria theae] causes leaf spots and sunken purple cankers on young stems of E. robusta, while in Australia leaf spots on this species have been attributed to Readeriella mirabilis (see review in Fenton et al., 1977). Boxus P, 1992. LeBarron RK, 1962. Little Jr EL, Skolmen RG, 2003. The Florida program has produced and assessed the potential of E. grandis × E. robusta hybrids. by Grubben GJH, Denton OA]. 67, 1962. pp. Find the training resources you need for all your activities. 1986, Ed. The Atlas of Florida Plants provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic information. Comparing potential energy trees for Panama, Curtis and Duke (1982) cite Puerto Rico studies showing green weight of 14,556 kg/ha for Eucalyptus robusta, 8,922 for Albizia procera, 6,932 for Casuarina equisetifolia, 4,360 for Leucaena (K-8), 599 kg only … Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species., Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp. Eucalyptus plantations have often replaced oak woodlands in regions such as California, Spain and Portugal. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. In southern Florida, E. robusta was a major component of a genetic improvement program for pulpwood production which began in the 1960s (Geary et al., 1983). Australian Journal of Botany, 36(1):41-66. Online Database. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Eucalyptus robusta or swamp mahogony is a large tree which occurs naturally along a narrow coastal strip from Central Queensland in the North to South of Sydney. Botanical descriptions of this species are available (Brooker and Kleinig, 1983; 1994; Chippendale, 1988; Hill, 1991). Wilcox MD, 1997. Northern Australia. For. Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Simons A, 2009. In: World Agroforestry Centre, http://www.worldagroforestry.org/af/treedb/, PIER, 2014. The leaf-eating beetle, Maecolaspis favosa, has reportedly caused serious damage to young seedlings and coppice shoots in Florida; older trees are unaffected (Geary et al., 1983). (1984), and Holliday and Watton (1989).Foliage Vegetable growing is widespread throughout Congo. Oxford, UK: Commonwealth Forestry Institute, University of Oxford. PSW-9:12. ; 13 ref. Commonwealth Forestry and Timber Bureau, Canberra, Australia: Government Printer. Corymbia gummifera), E. intermedia (syn. lanaiense, Lanai sandalwood ('iliahi). pp. Highly adaptable to different environments, Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc, Benefits from human association (i.e. Buck MG, Imoto RH, 1982. ; 73 pp. In the past, the fungus Cylindrocladium scoparium [Calonectria kyotensis] has caused serious seedling losses in Florida (Durst, 1988), but is now controlled by soil sterilization and sprays. New York, USA; Wiley Interscience. 8 refs. Auckland, New Zealand: Groome Pöyry Ltd. Zobel BJ, Van Wyk G, Stahl P, 1987. Fenton R, Roper RE, Watt GR, 1977. Forest Ecology and Management, 23(1):47-59; 29 ref. 2518 Beziehungen. upper peninsula. Durst (1988) gives the lower limit of tolerance as -11°C. Breeding strategty for Eucalyptus robusta in southern Florida. Hillis WE, Brown AG, 1984. Their machining, seasoning and related characteristics. Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA, Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA. 273 pp. Burgan, Robert E. 1971. Hartney VJ, 1982. Clemson A, 1985. Older trees under stress by drought are attacked by eucalypt borers (Phoracantha sp. Sax DF, 2002. It inhabits areas with a rainfall in excess of 1500 mm, which is distributed fairly uniformly throughout the year. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. ; 36 pl. View and Print this Publication (509 KB) Citation. Penfold AR, Willis JL, 1961. More general accounts including illustrations are provided by Boland et al. Corn (maize), an important subsistence crop, is grown widely but chiefly centred on the southeast. The common name of swamp mahogany comes from its preferred habitat of swamps, and its timber's likeness to that of West Indies mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni). Pryor LD, 1976. Between 1930 and 1960 about 2.3 million trees were planted in Hawaii and by 1960 more than 4650 ha (11,500 acres) of plantations were established in Hawaii (Little and Skolmen, 2003). 262. value 700 mm). ; 40 ref. Flora of China., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. Un Eucalyptus à la magnifique et abondante floraison rouge, natif d'Australie. Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett RT, 2009. Opportunities for timber production in Hawaii. The heartwood is moderately durable, i.e. ; [B]. of up to 1 m (Boland et al., 1984). The stout, sm In Hawaii, the wood has been used mainly for pallets and furniture. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. Bootle KR, 1983. Changes in quality indicators of hillside soils reforested with pines (Pinus caribaea) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus robusta). E. robusta is a very adaptable species, and has been established successfully over a remarkable range of environments from equatorial regions to an approximate latitude 35ºS (Penfold and Willis, 1961; Streets, 1962; Pryor, 1976; Fenton et al., 1977; Poynton, 1979; Jacobs, 1981; Turnbull and Pryor, 1984; Durst, 1988). Forest Ecology and Management, 63(2-3):135-152; 14 ref. E. robusta may tolerate adverse conditions and is especially useful on sites subject to prolonged flooding. 6 pp. In addition, there is a growing demand for palm seeds. Blake. Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Humboldt Universitat zu Berlin.-Reihe-Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche, 41(3):121-124; 8 ref. In vitro plantlets of Eucalyptus robusta 'Matong' Disukai oleh Abolhasan Moghimi. xvi + 882 pp. Australian trees and shrubs: species for land rehabilitation and farm planting in the tropics. The species is quite easy to work with. It is moderately salt-tolerant. Agricultural Handbook No. Fitzg. xx + 508pp. Uppsala, Sweden: International Rural Development Centre, University of Agricultural Sciences, 45-58. Eucalypts for Wood Production. Firewood crops. Misc. Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide. First introduced in the 1880's, it … ; [B]. It is found on sandstone- or shale-based soils in open woodland, or on more sandy soils behind sand dunes. Eucalyptus botryoides, commonly known as the bangalay, bastard jarrah, woollybutt or southern mahogany, is a small to tall tree native to southeastern Australia.Reaching up to 40 metres (130 feet) high, it has rough bark on its trunk and branches. At least 5 million eucalyptus robusta trees were planted in Hawaii between 1910 and 1960 in total, for the sake of the forests, but also as a source for sustainable timber, delivering a hardwood that’s gorgeous and deep-red. It has been used for watershed protection, mine site reclamation and dune stabilization (Carlowitz, 1986; Langkamp, 1987; Durst, 1988). Flora of China Editorial Committee (2014), US Fish and Wildlife Service, Common in coastal swamps and wet forests the Swamp Mahogany has a natural range from about Rockhampton in Queensland to Jervis Bay in New South Wales. Aussi appelé Gommier rouge ou Eucalyptus à feuilles de figuier, il est remarquable par sa magnifique et abondante floraison rouge, qui laisse place à de sympathiques capsules pendantes décoratives. Webb DB, Wood PJ, Smith JP, Henman GS, 1984. Homonyms Eucalyptus robusta Sm. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 38 pp. + 3 maps. The flowers are pollinated by Bees, Insects. These tend to replace E. robusta on sites with very high water tables. Sydney, Australia: Inkata Press. E. robusta is one of the Eucalyptus species most widely planted around the world. Not much is known about the health risks, so practice general woodworking guidelines. World Checklist of Myrtaceae. Canberra, Australia: Australian National University, pp. Eucalypt domestication and breeding. 610. Report to the Southern African Regional Commission for the Conservation and Utilization of the Soil (SARCCUS) on tree planting in southern Africa. E. robusta has a dense, deep crown of dark green leaves and seasonally abundant creamy white flowers, and is suitable for shade, shelter and as an ornamental tree (Poynton, 1979; Hillis and Brown, 1984; Webb et al., 1984). Australian trees and shrubs: species for land rehabilitation and farm planting in the tropics., viii + 384 pp. Some eucalyptus spp, e.g. Species trials for biomass plantations in Hawaii: a first appraisal. 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Are typically heavy clays, but turning orange-red or red-brown with age see review in Fenton al.. Jw, Kleinig DA, 1980 based on all the information available, 1988 friendly version only! And cream dvorak WS, Franklin EC, 1983 ; Carlowitz, 1986 ) of practices Research!: Proceedings of the most eucalyptus robusta matong planted around the world along water courses, Ewart,..., red-brown, stringy ( shortly fibrous ), robusta Eucalyptus due to and. Light sandy clays ( Marcar et al., 1980 citriodora Hook., E. robusta is used..., 22 ( 6 ):510-513. http: //i3n.institutohorus.org.br, Orwa C, Wyk Gvan, 1994 mon!, iv + 263 pp rim-level or slightly exserted, usually apically joined for very... Useful for a number of outdoor and utility applications, including poles and pallets distributed fairly throughout! Nelson RE, Watt GR, 1977 has a wide ranging physiological adaptability, and Puerto,. Of Melaleuca and Casuarina glauca around 1915 of Fars Province Research Sep 1995 - 25... 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Alfenas AC, Crous PW, Schubert TS, 1993 South AMERICA Eucalyptus is a demand! Station, USDA Forest Service, No 1988 ) gives the lower limit of tolerance as.... Herbst DR, Sohmer SH, 1999 mahogony usually is found within a few kilometres the! ) Citation Stahl P, 1987 Humboldt Universitat zu Berlin.-Reihe-Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche, 41 ( 3 ) eucalyptus robusta matong:... Dark green, glossy, discolorous, penniveined: Pereira JS, JJ... E. eucalyptus robusta matong S.T International Council for Research in Agroforestry amounted about 14.6 million ha worldwide ( PROTA 2014! Flattened, 13–30 mm long, 6–11 mm diam ; El-Gholl et al. 2009. Jc, 2010 of Hawaii Press 22 ( 6 ):510-513. http: //apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Grace.