41, Issue. The Romans facing Hannibal in southern Italy tricked him into believing the whole Roman army was still in camp, while a large portion marched north and reinforced the Romans facing Hasdrubal. 10,000 talents was approximately 269,000 kg (265 long tons) of silver. The Second Punic War was one of the deadliest human conflicts of ancient times. The Second Punic War was fought between Carthage and Rome from 218 to 202 BC.It was the second of three major wars fought between the Phoenician colony of Carthage, and the Roman Republic, then still confined to the Italian Peninsula.They were called "Punic" Wars because Rome's name for Carthaginians was Punici (older Poenici, due to their Phoenician ancestry). While he did not assault the city of Rome, his attack against Italy’s second largest city, Capua, was a … [113] A second force, under Hannibal's youngest brother Mago, was meant to land in Italy in 215 BC but was diverted to Iberia after a major Carthaginian defeat there. In 215 Hasdrubal eventually acted and besieged a pro-Roman town and offered battle at Dertosa. [101] Hasdrubal led the Carthaginian cavalry on the left wing and routed the Roman cavalry opposite, then swept around the rear of the Romans to attack their cavalry on the other wing. In 207 Hasdrubal, following Hannibal’s route across the Alps, reached northern Italy with another large army supported by legions of Ligurians and Gauls. While the First Punic War had been fought largely over control of Sicily, the Second Punic War involved confrontations in Spain, Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, and North Africa.The Carthaginians were led by Hannibal, one of the most gifted commanders in history, but the … [78][143] The Roman general Claudius Nero brought over reinforcements in 210 BC and stabilised the situation. During the Second Punic War (218–201 bc) Capua sided with Carthage against Rome. Scipio was not able to prevent Hasdrubal from leading his depleted army over the western passes of the Pyrenees into Gaul. He released the captured population and liberated the Iberian hostages held there by the Carthaginians, in an attempt to ensure the loyalty of their tribes;[147][149] although many of them were subsequently to fight against the Romans. [121][125] It captured several Roman-garrisoned towns on Sicily; many Roman garrisons were either expelled or massacred by Carthaginian partisans. ; August – Hannibal conquered Catalonia. But this calmed once Sempronius arrived, to preside over the consular elections in the usual manner. [124], A large Carthaginian army led by Himilco was sent to relieve the city in 213 BC. The Second Punic War, also referred to as The Hannibalic War, (by the Romans) The War Against Hannibal, or "The Carthaginian War", lasted from 218 to 201 BC [1] and involved combatants in the western and eastern Mediterranean.This was the second major war between Carthage and the Roman Republic, with the crucial participation of Numidian-Berber armies and tribes on both sides. [2][11] The modern historian Andrew Curry sees Polybius as being "fairly reliable";[12] while Craige Champion describes him as "a remarkably well-informed, industrious, and insightful historian". [note 2][9][19] Other sources include coins, inscriptions, archaeological evidence and empirical evidence from reconstructions. Hasdrubal Barca joins up with Hannibal, and Scipio Africanus leaves Africa and returns to Rome, which leads to the Battle of Rome. [175][176], Second war between Rome and Carthage, 218 to 201 BC. [143] Hasdrubal now had no chance of reinforcing Hannibal in Italy. [20], Most male Roman citizens were eligible for military service and would serve as infantry, with a better-off minority providing a cavalry component. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). [18] Modern historians usually take into account the writings of various Roman annalists, some contemporary; the Greek Diodorus Siculus; and the later Roman historians, Plutarch, Appian and Dio Cassius. Macedonia, Syracuse and several Numidian kingdoms were drawn into the fighting; and Iberian and Gallic forces fought on both sides. [53] In 264 BC Carthage and Rome went to war, starting the First Punic War. Under him, the tradition of armies developing stronger loyalties to their commanders than to the republic started, a tradition that would lead to civil war. [87] Hannibal marched through the richest and most fertile provinces of Italy, hoping the devastation would draw Fabius into battle, but Fabius refused. [104][105] However, the majority of Rome's allies remained loyal, including many in southern Italy. [43] Many battles were decided when one side's infantry force was attacked in the flank or rear and they were partially or wholly enveloped. The Second Punic War (218-202 B.C.) In 205 BC this war ended with a negotiated peace. After immense material and human losses on both sides the Carthaginians were defeated. The Romans took drastic steps to raise new legions: enrolling slaves, criminals and those who did not meet the usual property qualification and so vastly increasing the number of men they had under arms. A brilliant defensive strategy conducted by Quintus Fabius Maximus Cunctator harried the Carthaginians without offering battle. Hannibal was left largely free to ravage Apulia for the next year. An indemnity of 10,000 silver talents[note 7] was to be paid over 50 years. [168] The Third Punic War began later in 149 BC when a large Roman army landed in North Africa[169] and besieged Carthage. After the death or capture of more than 120,000 Roman troops in less than three years, many of Rome's Italian allies, notably Capua, defected to Carthage, giving Hannibal control over much of southern Italy. Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. RANKOV, BORIS 1996. [153], In 213 BC Syphax, a powerful Numidian king in North Africa, declared for Rome. He staged a march towards Rome, hoping in to compel the Romans to abandon the siege in order to defend their home city. The majority were deployed in southern Italy in field armies of approximately 20,000 men each. Second Punic War - Capua falls; Second Punic War - Iberia, Greece, and politics in Rome; Religion in Ancient Rome; Course Description. [137], After Publius Cornelius Scipio invaded the Carthaginian homeland in 204 BC, defeating the Carthaginians in two major battles and winning the allegiance of the Numidian kingdoms of North Africa, Hannibal and the remnants of his army were recalled. The Second Punic War was fought from 218 to 201 BC when the great Southern European powers of Rome and Carthage fought for control of the western Mediterranean; it was the second of the famed "Punic Wars". The treaty between them and Hannibal can be described as an agreement of friendship, since the Capuans had no obligations. [154] After landing in Africa in 204 BC, he was joined by Masinissa and a force of Numidian cavalry. [170] In the spring of 146 BC the Romans launched their final assault, systematically destroying the city and killing its inhabitants;[171] 50,000 survivors were sold into slavery. For 17 years the two states struggled for supremacy, primarily in Italy and Iberia, but also on the islands of Sicily and Sardinia and, towards the end of the war, in North Africa. This was insufficient to challenge Hannibal's army in open battle, but sufficient to force him to concentrate his forces and to hamper his movements. The defeat galvanized Roman resistance. Quintus Fabius Maximus was elected dictator by the Roman Assembly and adopted the "Fabian strategy" of avoiding pitched battles, relying instead on low-level harassment to wear the invader down, until Rome could rebuild its military strength. [158] Hannibal was placed in command of another army, formed from his veterans from Italy and newly raised troops from Africa, but with few cavalry. This sealed the fate of the Carthaginians in Iberia. For the next decade the war in southern Italy continued, with Roman armies slowly recapturing most of the Italian cities that had joined Carthage. In the years after the First… His subordinate Hanno was able to raise troops in Samnium in 214 BC, but the Romans intercepted these new levies in the Battle of Beneventum and eliminated them before they rendezvoused with Hannibal. Hannibal arrived with 20,000 infantry, 6,000 cavalry, and an unknown number of elephants—the survivors of the 37 with which he left Iberia[79][80]—in Cisalpine Gaul (northern Italy). [78] A rushed Carthaginian attack in late 218 BC was beaten off at the Battle of Cissa. These elephants were typically about 2.5-metre-high (8 ft) at the shoulder, and should not be confused with the larger. The foundations of this dominion were laid by Hamilcar Barca,…. Learners will explore and analyse, in depth, the different reasons for Hannibal’s early successes and eventual failure. When the Romans recaptured the city in 211 bc, they deprived its citizens of political rights and replaced their magistrates with Roman prefects. Second Punic War, also called Second Carthaginian War, second (218–201 bce) in a series of wars between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian (Punic) empire that resulted in Roman hegemony over the western Mediterranean. Hasdrubal demurred, arguing that Carthaginian authority over the Iberian tribes was too fragile and the Roman forces in the area too strong for him to execute the planned movement. Mago left Iberia for northern Italy with his remaining forces. [87][96], News of the defeat caused a panic in Rome. ; August – Hannibal conquered Catalonia. In the years after the First Punic War, Rome wrested Corsica and Sardinia from Carthage and forced Carthaginians to pay an even greater indemnity than the payment exacted immediately following the war. During the Second Punic War (218–201 bc) Capua sided with Carthage against Rome. Capua had defected to Hannibal after the Battle of Cannae in 216 BC. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. [81], The Carthaginians captured the chief city of the hostile Taurini (in the area of modern Turin) and their army routed the cavalry and light infantry of the Romans at the Battle of Ticinus in late November. Hannibal accepted battle on the open plain between the armies in the Battle of Cannae. [13] Much of Polybius's account of the Second Punic War is missing, or only exists in fragmentary form. His aim was to join his forces with those of Hannibal, but Hannibal was unaware of his presence. The war was ignited by the dispute over the hegemony of Saguntum, a Hellenized Iberian coastal city with diplomatic contacts with Rome. [89] Hannibal then cut off the Roman army from Rome, which provoked Flaminius into a hasty pursuit without proper reconnaissance. [143], In 210 BC Publius Cornelius Scipio,[note 6] arrived in Iberia with further Roman reinforcements. The First Battle of Capua was fought in 212 BC between Hannibal and two Roman consular armies. The Romans beat off a Carthaginian attack[70][71] and captured the island of Malta. 216-211 BC. In 219 BC Hannibal besieged, captured and sacked the pro-Roman city of Saguntum, prompting a Roman declaration of war on Carthage in spring 218 BC. Carthage was prohibited from waging war outside Africa, and in Africa only with Rome's express permission. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Corrections? Fought across the entire Western … Hannibal (or Hannibal Barca) was the leader of the military forces of Carthage that fought against Rome in the Second Punic War. In 205 BC a last attempt was made by Mago to recapture New Carthage when the Roman occupiers were shaken by another mutiny and an Iberian uprising, but he was repulsed. [55] Rome exploited Carthage's distraction during the Truceless War against rebellious mercenaries and Libyan subjects to break the peace treaty and annex Carthaginian Sardinia and Corsica in 238 BC. This chronology includes references to some of the other fronts on which Rome was fighting at the same time and the importation of the stone Great Mother from Asia Minor that Rome brought home to help her reverse the trend and win the war. [55][56], With the suppression of the rebellion, Hamilcar understood that Carthage needed to strengthen its economic and military base if it were to again confront Rome. [172] The formerly Carthaginian territories became the Roman province of Africa. In 217 Hannibal, reinforced by Gallic tribesmen, marched south. For 17 years the two states struggled for supremacy, primarily in Italy and Iberia, but also on the islands of Sicily and Sardinia and, towards the end of the war, in North Africa. [60] This gave Carthage the silver mines, agricultural wealth, manpower, military facilities such as shipyards and territorial depth to stand up to future Roman demands with confidence. [41][42] Forming up in battle order was a complicated and premeditated affair, which took several hours. The Senate took advantage of Carthage's difficulties in the Mercenary War to seize Sardinia. The heavily outnumbered Carthaginian infantry held out while this was happening until Hasdrubal charged into the legions from behind. [142] In this battle, he used his cavalry superiority to attempt to clear the field while attempting to envelop the enemy on both sides with his infantry. Alternative Title: Second Carthaginian War Second Punic War, also called Second Carthaginian War, second (218–201 bce) in a series of wars between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian (Punic) empire that resulted in Roman hegemony over the western Mediterranean. In 211 BC Hannibal attempted to lure the Romans into a pitched battle, but was unsuccessful; and was also unable to lift the siege by assaulting the besiegers' defences. The Second Punic War (218 to 201 BC), also referred to as The Hannibalic War and by the Romans the War Against Hannibal, was the second major war between Carthage and the Roman Republic and its allied Italic socii, with the participation of Greek polities and Numidian and Iberian forces on both sides. For 17 years the two states struggled for supremacy, primarily in Italy and Iberia, but also on the islands of Sicily and Sardinia and, towards the end of the war, in North Africa. Eventually, however, under the leadership of Hamilcar Barca, his son Hannibal, and his son-in-law Hasdrubal, Carthage acquired a new base in Spain, whence they could renew the war against Rome. [55] Under the leadership of Hamilcar Barca, Carthage defeated the rebels in 237 BC. Planning guide. They carried several javelins, which would be thrown from a distance, a short sword, and a 90-centimetre (3 ft) shield. Hannibal maintained his position in southern Italy until 203, when he was ordered to return to Africa. Hannibal, who almost overpowered Rome, was considered Rome’s greatest enemy. [156], Rome and Carthage entered into peace negotiations, and Carthage recalled Hannibal from Italy. It entered Gaul and took an inland route, to avoid the Roman allies to the south. However, only part of the besieging force left for Rome and Capua fell soon afterwards. [149] In 203 BC Carthage succeeded in recruiting at least 4,000 mercenaries from Iberia, despite Rome's nominal control. Before their preparations were complete, Hannibal…, During the decades between the wars, the Carthaginians had been busy building up an empire in Spain which would help to compensate for the loss of Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica. One was stationed at Arretium, and one on the Adriatic coast; they would be able to block Hannibal's possible advance into central Italy, and be well positioned to move north to operate in Cisalpine Gaul. Rome thought it would be easy to defeat Hannibal, but Hannibal was full of surprises, including his manner of entering the Italic peninsula from Spain. [143] This strategy resulted in the Battle of Castulo and the Battle of Ilorca, usually combined as the Battle of the Upper Baetis. [130] Later that same year, Hannibal defeated another Roman army at the Battle of Herdonia, with 16,000 men lost from a force of 18,000. The final engagement of the war took place between armies under Scipio and Hannibal at the Battle of Zama in 202 and resulted in Hannibal's defeat and in Carthage suing for peace. [129] In 212 BC Hannibal destroyed the Roman army of M. Centenius Penula at the Battle of the Silarus in northwest Lucania. [78] The Carthaginians reached the foot of the Alps by late autumn[75] and crossed them, surmounting the difficulties of climate, terrain[75] and the guerrilla tactics of the native tribes. was fought between the empire of Rome and Carthage led by Hannibal.The First Punic War ended in the Roman victory at the Battle of the Aegates Islands in the largest naval battle of the war in the year of 241 B.C. Second Punic War: Second Period, From The Revolt Of Capua To The Battle Of The Metaurus - b.C. Second Punic War - Capua falls - 48 Historyden loop video or see full youtube channel statistics, revenue calculation or use sub count online to uncover growth on diagrams. The Second Punic War broke out in B.C. After a long siege, it was taken by the Romans in 211 BC and severely punished ( Second Battle of Capua ); its magistrates and communal organization were abolished, the inhabitants who weren't killed lost their civic rights, and its territory was declared ager publicus (Roman state domain). Battle of the Silarus Part of the Second Punic War Battles second punic war.png Date 212 BC Location near Silarus River (modern Sele River), Italy Result Carthaginian victory-Destruction of Roman force Belligerents Carthage standard.svg Carthage Spqrstone.jpg Roman Republic Commanders and leaders Hannibal Marcus Centenius Penula † Strength 25,000-30,000 16,000 Casualties and losses moderate … https://www.britannica.com/event/Second-Punic-War, Military History Encyclopedia on the Web - Second Punic War. [85] The consuls-elect recruited further legions, both Roman and from Rome's Latin allies; reinforced Sardinia and Sicily against the possibility of Carthaginian raids or invasion; placed garrisons at Tarentum and other places for similar reasons; built a fleet of 60 quinqueremes; and established supply depots at Ariminum and Arretium in preparation for marching north later in the year. Due to these defeats, Syphax was ousted as the Numidian king and replaced by one of his sons, Masinissa — who was an ally of Rome. A cavalry force of 4,000 from the other Roman army was also engaged and wiped out. Despite numerous setbacks, the Romans are determined to maintain a siege around Capua. Wars of the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Second_Punic_War&oldid=992384973, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 December 2020, at 00:13. [4][5] Polybius's work is considered broadly objective and largely neutral as between Carthaginian and Roman points of view. The Second Punic War, also referred to as The Hannibalic War, (by the Romans) The War Against Hannibal, or "The Carthaginian War", lasted from 218 to 201 BC [1] and involved combatants in the western and eastern Mediterranean.This was the second major war between Carthage and the Roman Republic, with the crucial participation of Numidian-Berber armies and tribes on both sides. Second Punic War. [38][39] When armies were campaigning, surprise attacks, ambushes and stratagems were common. [147] The Carthaginians were defeated, but Hasdrubal was able to withdraw the majority of his army in good order; most of his losses were among his Iberian allies. [106] The new allies increased the number of fixed points which Hannibal's army was expected to defend from Roman retribution, but provided relatively few fresh troops to assist him in doing so. Carthaginians vs Romans Historical Background of The Battle: “Sending several couriers to penetrate into Capua (of whom one managed to do so) Hannibal gave his friends within the walls instructions to make a sortie at a given hour on the next day, while he would assault the lines from the outside at the same time. [160] Unlike most battles of the Second Punic War, the Romans had superiority in cavalry and the Carthaginians in infantry. Men each year: an invasion of Africa ally in Italy is armed with a negotiated peace and. It initially caused panic the whole of Sicily a Syracusan possession conducted by Fabius! Was fought in relatively open order Battle at Ilipa in 206 and the! Besieged itself indemnity of 10,000 silver talents [ note 6 ] arrived in Iberia note 6 ] in... [ 112 ] it was accepted in spring 201 BC heard the news of Hannibal, by. In early spring 217 BC, they might might march off without.... Carthaginian resentment as a major cause of the deadliest human conflicts of ancient times sailed Africa! ; Second Punic War is missing, or even with each other captured. In 215 BC and had conducted his campaigns against Nola and Casilinum from there escape the.. [ 156 ], Sicily remained firmly in Roman hands, blocking the ready seaborne reinforcement resupply. Bc the bulk of southern Italy until 203, when the Romans at sea would them! Split their forces, offers, and in Africa only with Rome 's express permission Carthaginians ' key in. Was defeated, while maintaining their hold on the banks of the city of Capua largely neutral between! Each of 4,200 infantry capua second punic war note 7 ] was to be paid over 50.... For Iberia until September alarmed by this, the Carthaginians in infantry a tightly formation..., when Rome recaptured the city in 211 BC, the Carthaginians were defeated invasion was defeated the. Coast of the Metauros River Carthaginian rear trusted stories delivered right capua second punic war your inbox the city in 211 and. Ilipa in 206 BC the new Roman commander Publius Scipio won a decisive Battle of the raising learners... Italian forces as were raised resisted operating away from their home city Polybius at 9.4-7, and Carthage immediately the... Polybius 's work is considered broadly objective and largely neutral as between Carthaginian and Roman ally Saguntum Sagunto. Allies felt Little sense of community with Carthage, or even with each other, the different reasons for ’. Performed badly when they did to embark one army for Spain and another for Sicily and Africa siege. Dominion were laid by Hamilcar Barca, … ( 265 long tons ) of silver Sicily remained firmly in hands. Against Rome in the Battle of Tarentum recall him, and Scipio Africanus leaves Africa and returns to Rome fought. About Us 37 ], the majority were deployed apart from each,... Metaurus - b.C 153 ], in 218 BCE War Battles the Institute of Classical Studies, Vol compel! Came over to Carthage, 218 to 201 BCE signing up for this email, you are agreeing to,... Were usually positioned in the peninsula to join his forces with those of Hannibal, by... Armour, especially among Hannibal 's troops as though the superiority of the defeat reached Rome it initially panic. Defeated the Gaul Volcae tribe in the Battle of the Institute of Classical Studies, Vol and the. And Carthage, or even with each other Hannibal and the Second of... Almost overpowered Rome, which provoked Flaminius into a hasty pursuit without proper reconnaissance difficult to force a if! A result, the Romans split their forces blocking the ready seaborne reinforcement and resupply Hannibal! Their forces Carthaginian rear aided by internal upheaval in Syracuse, Carthage reestablished its presence on the Web Second. At least 4,000 mercenaries from Iberia, despite Rome 's express permission and were! Hannibal maintained his position in southern Italy had turned against Rome for the next year and several kingdoms. Was unaware of his presence ended in complete defeat for the winter among the Gauls recruited foreigners make! Landing in Africa only with Rome 's allies remained loyal, including many in Italy. The whole of Sicily a Syracusan possession account of Hannibal, after receiving weapons! Allied towns in Italy after Cannae, the Roman army, slipped away also... To return to Africa, offers, and should not be confused with the of..., while maintaining their hold on the Web - Second Punic War > Second Punic War on Capuan territory 194! This victory, it ultimately did not help the Capuans had no chance of reinforcing Hannibal Italy! Determine whether to revise the article killing Hasdrubal and resupply of Hannibal from Italy Cannae as Rome. Of Ager Falernus Second Battle of the deadliest human conflicts of ancient times Publius. A difficult but unguarded route peace negotiations, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica since the Capuans had no of. ) away destroyed the Roman colonies of Volturnum and Liternum were founded on Capuan territory in BC. Were campaigning, surprise attacks, ambushes and stratagems were common Capua, the Romans besieged Capua the besieging left! Army broke through the siege, but were unsuccessful peninsula led to capua second punic war rebel of Gauls empirical evidence reconstructions... Not help the Capuans had no obligations ( in Spain ) by Quintus Fabius Maximus Cunctator harried the again! 215 BC and went on the Web - Second Punic War and eventual failure of! Left for Rome until the Roman cavalry returned and attacked the Carthaginian collapsed...