Areas covered include atomic structure, physical properties, atomic interaction, thermodynamics, identification, atomic size, crystal structure, history, abundances, and nomenclature. The main nitride is europium(III) nitride (EuN). Europium is the most reactive of the rare earth elements. CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of November 2020 (, "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)", "Rare-Earth Metal Long Term Air Exposure Test", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, "Neutron cross section evaluations of fission products below the fast energy region", "Variations in chemical and physical properties of fluorite", "A Star in the Big Dipper Is an Alien Invader", "Bayan Obo Controversy: Carbonatites versus Iron Oxide-Cu-Au-(REE-U)", "On the Phosphorescent Spectra of S δ and Europium", "Rediscovery of the Elements: Europium-Eugene Demarçay", "Rediscovery of the elements: The Rare Earths–The Confusing Years", "The acute mammalian toxicity of rare earth nitrates and oxides*1", "Europium (Eu) – Chemical properties, Health and Environmental effects", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Europium&oldid=988573699, CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of November 2020, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 14 November 2020, at 00:15. It is a moderately hard, silvery metal which readily oxidizes in air and water. [7] One of the more common persistent after-glow phosphors besides copper-doped zinc sulfide is europium-doped strontium aluminate. [8], Europium becomes a superconductor when it is cooled below 1.8 K and compressed to above 80 GPa. It occurs in the products of the nuclear fission . Element Europium (Eu), Group 19, Atomic Number 63, f-block, Mass 151.964. Frank Spedding, celebrated for his development of the ion-exchange technology that revolutionized the rare-earth industry in the mid-1950s, once related the story of how[52] he was lecturing on the rare earths in the 1930s, when an elderly gentleman approached him with an offer of a gift of several pounds of europium oxide. Eu-151 is used for the production of Eu-152 which is used as a reference source in gammaspectroscopy. Europium is associated with the other rare-earth elements and is, therefore, mined together with them. [63][64][65][66][67], A recent (2015) application of europium is in quantum memory chips which can reliably store information for days at a time; these could allow sensitive quantum data to be stored to a hard disk-like device and shipped around. The term rare earth elements has long been used for elements in Row 6 of the periodic table, a chart that shows how chemical elements are related to each other. This name comes from the first element in Row 6, lanthanum.Rare earth elements are not … Europium compounds tend to exist trivalent oxidation state under most conditions. When oxidation is removed a shiny-white metal is visible. The chemical element Europium, obviously named after the continent, has atomic number 63 the symbol Eu. Prior to europium, the color-TV red phosphor was very weak, and the other phosphor colors had to be muted, to maintain color balance. Rare-earth elements are found in the minerals bastnäsite, loparite-(Ce), xenotime, and monazite in mineable quantities. [7] Europium is also used in the manufacture of fluorescent glass, increasing the general efficiency of fluorescent lamps. List of Europium Compounds, Common Compounds of Europium Eu, Formula, Molecular Weight Commonly these compounds feature Eu(III) bound by 6–9 oxygenic ligands, typically water. Organize with favorites and folders, choose to follow along via email, and quickly find unread posts. Many minerals contain europium, with the most important sources being bastnäsite, monazite, xenotime and loparite-(Ce). Eu 3+ has a [Xe]4f 6 electronic configuration. [27] Europium is commonly included in trace element studies in geochemistry and petrology to understand the processes that form igneous rocks (rocks that cooled from magma or lava). For the extraction from the ore and the isolation of individual lanthanides, several methods have been developed. The sulfates of both barium and europium(II) are also highly insoluble in water. Europium is most commonly found in 3+ oxidation state, although some fraction of Eu 2+ may be present in selected compounds. It rapidly oxidizes in air, so that bulk oxidation of a centimeter-sized sample occurs within several days. The controversial EU aid programs appear to be centered on EU member states that share borders with non-member states, with much of the training focus on border crossings and migration. Europium is used in the phosphors. Three oxides are known: europium(II) oxide (EuO), europium(III) oxide (Eu2O3), and the mixed-valence oxide Eu3O4, consisting of both Eu(II) and Eu(III). It is also used in the anti-counterfeiting phosphors in euro banknotes. There are no commercial applications for europium metal, although it has been used to dope some types of plastics to make lasers. [7], Europium is a ductile metal with a hardness similar to that of lead. (Europium) Symbol (Eu) Number (63) Group Number (NA) Group (Rare Earth, Lanthanides) Block (f) Density (5.259 g/cm3) Atomic Weight (151.96 g/mol) Atomic Volume (28.9 cm3/mol) Discover (1901) States: State (Solid) Melting Point (1099 K) Boiling Point (1802 K) Today, europium is primarily obtained through an ion exchange process from monazite sand ((Ce, La, Th, Nd, Y)PO4), a material rich in rare earth elements. Europium is the most reactive lanthanide by far, having to be stored under an inert fluid to protect it from atmospheric oxygen or moisture. Since it is a good absorber of neutrons, europium is being studied for use in nuclear reactors. Eu-153 can be used for the production of high specific activity Sm-153 via fast neutron irradiation. Otherwise, the main chalcogenides are europium(II) sulfide (EuS), europium(II) selenide (EuSe) and europium(II) telluride (EuTe): all three of these are black solids. [56] Whereas trivalent europium gives red phosphors,[57] the luminescence of divalent europium depends strongly on the composition of the host structure. Estimated Crustal Abundance: 2.0 milligrams per kilogram, Estimated Oceanic Abundance: 1.3×10-7 milligrams per liter, Number of Stable Isotopes: 1 (View all isotope data). Besides the natural radioisotope 151Eu, 35 artificial radioisotopes have been characterized, the most stable being 150Eu with a half-life of 36.9 years, 152Eu with a half-life of 13.516 years, and 154Eu with a half-life of 8.593 years. Element Europium - Eu. Sources, facts, uses, scarcity (SRI), podcasts, alchemical symbols, videos and images. It will ignite in air about 150° C to 180° C. It is hard as lead and very ductile. It reacts strongly with oxygen in the air and spontaneously catches fire. The primary decay products before 153Eu are isotopes of samarium (Sm) and the primary products after are isotopes of gadolinium (Gd).[16]. The elderly gentleman had turned out to be Herbert Newby McCoy, who had developed a famous method of europium purification involving redox chemistry.[38][53]. Today, europium is primarily obtained through an ion exchange process from monazite sand ((Ce, La, Th, Nd, Y)PO 4), a material rich in rare earth elements. There are two stable isotopes of Europium that exist in nature, europium-151 and europium-153. Named after the continent of Europe. The reduction from Eu3+ to Eu2+ is induced by irradiation with energetic particles. Europium is obtained from monazite sand, which is a mixture of phosphates of … The average crustal abundance of europium is 2–2.2 ppm. Europium is a chemical element with symbol Eu and atomic number 63. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of europium ions doped in silicate glass Europium was discovered in 1901 by French chemist Eugene-Anatole Demarcay (1852-1904). He was able to produce reasonably pure europium in 1901. [25][36][37][38][39], A few large deposits produce or produced a significant amount of the world production. It is obtained from many minerals like: bastnasite (family of three carbonate fluoride mineral), monazite (reddish brown phosphate mineral), xenotime (phosphate mineral) and loparite-(Ce) (granular brittle oxide mineral). All the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives shorter than 4.7612 years, and the majority of these have half-lives shorter than 12.2 seconds. n europium A supposed new element announced by Demarçay in 1901, obtained in very small quantity as oxid, sulphate, etc., from samar-skite and monazite. For questions about this page, please contact Steve Gagnon. This behavior is unusual for most lanthanides, which almost exclusively form compounds with an oxidation state of +3. Learn more about europium in this article. When an electron is added to a neutral atom, energy is released. 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